Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides Book

Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides

  • Author : Pavel Povinec
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2011-07-28
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 538
  • ISBN 10 : 0080553370

Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides Book Description :

The purpose of this book is to present a state of art summary of current knowledge of methods of assessment of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments. It cover the traditional methods of radioactivity measurements such as radiometrics techniques, but also recent developments in the mass spectrometry sector. The book starts with a short preface introducing the subject of the book, summarising content and philosophy of the book, as well as the most important historical achievements. The scientific topics are introduced by description of sampling methods, optimisation of sampling sites and sampling frequency. The recent developments in radiochemical separation methods using chromatography resins for the treatment of actinides, transuranics and other groups of radioelements are also described. No other book is available covering all aspects of environmental radioactivity measurements, although remarkable progress has been made in detection techniques over the last ten years. At present the new methods enable to carry out investigations which were not possible before, either because of lack of sensitivity or because of the fact that they required too large samples.

Ratio Estimation Techniques in the Analysis of Environmental Radionuclide Data Book

Ratio Estimation Techniques in the Analysis of Environmental Radionuclide Data

  • Author :
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date : 1977
  • Genre:
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:1065924532

Ratio Estimation Techniques in the Analysis of Environmental Radionuclide Data Book Description :

Ratios play a prominent role in the analysis of environmental transuranic data. The mathematical assumptions underlying the use of ratios are presented. The properties of seven different estimators of an average ratio and their standard errors are discussed with respect to their applicability to transuranic field studies. The behavior of these estimators, their standard errors, and confidence intervals are compared for three representative sets of data from safety-shot sites at the Nevada Test Site and Tonapah Test Range. Guidelines are given for deciding if an average ratio is appropriate. Recommendations for avoiding an inappropriate estimator are discussed.

Radionuclides in the Environment Book

Radionuclides in the Environment

  • Author : Clemens Walther
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-10-30
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 273
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319221717

Radionuclides in the Environment Book Description :

This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis VI Book

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis VI

  • Author : Nicholas Evans
  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release Date : 2019-09-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN 10 : 9781788017350

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis VI Book Description :

Anthropogenic radionuclides have been introduced into the environment by incidents such as nuclear weapon tests, accidents in nuclear power plants, transport accidents and accidental or authorised discharges from nuclear facilities. Scientists need accurate analysis of these radionuclides in order to estimate the risk to the public from released radioactivity. This book is a snapshot of the work of leading scientists from across the globe on environmental radiochemistry and radioecology, nuclear forensics and radiation detection, radioanalytical techniques and nuclear industry applications. The research contributions were first presented at the 13th International Symposium on Nuclear and Environmental Radiochemical Analysis in September 2018. This essential work provides a key reference for graduates and professionals who work across fields involving analytical chemistry, radiochemistry, environmental science and technology, and waste disposal.

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis Book

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

  • Author : Michael F. L'Annunziata
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2012-12-02
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 771
  • ISBN 10 : 9780323137881

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis Book Description :

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis is written by experts in the measurement of radioactivity. The book describes the broad scope of analytical methods available and instructs the reader on how to select the proper technique. It is intended as a practical manual for research which requires the accurate measurement of radioactivity at all levels, from the low levels encountered in the environment to the high levels measured in radioisotope research. This book contains sample preparation procedures, recommendations on steps to follow, necessary calculations, computer controlled analysis, and high sample throughput techniques. Each chapter includes practical techniques for application to nuclear safety, nuclear safeguards, environmental analysis, weapons disarmament, and assays required for research in biomedicine and agriculture. The fundamentals of radioactivity properties, radionuclide decay, and methods of detection are included to provide the basis for a thorough understanding of the analytical procedures described in the book. Therefore, the Handbook can also be used as a teaching text. Key Features * Includes sample preparation techniques for matrices such as soil, air, plant, water, animal tissue, and surface swipes * Provides procedures and guidelines for the analysis of commonly encountered na

Radionuclide X ray Fluorescence Analysis with Environmental Applications Book

Radionuclide X ray Fluorescence Analysis with Environmental Applications

  • Author : Juraj Tölgyessy
  • Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
  • Release Date : 1990
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 254
  • ISBN 10 : 0444988378

Radionuclide X ray Fluorescence Analysis with Environmental Applications Book Description :

Nuclear analytical methods are being used increasingly for solving analytical problems and, of these methods, radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (radionuclide XRFA) is becoming more important. The purpose of this work is to present a comprehensive, instructive analysis of the basis of radionuclide XRFA, to describe methods of sample preparation for environmental analysis and to make the reader more familiar with the procedures, methods and instrumentation of radionuclide XRFA used in this field. This book discusses the use of radionuclide XRFA for solving analytical problems of the environment and information is presented concerning the current state of research and use of radionuclide XRFA in this significant area. The present volume will serve as a basic source of data and also as a laboratory handbook.

Handbook for the Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides Book

Handbook for the Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides

  • Author : F. Zapata
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2007-05-08
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 219
  • ISBN 10 : 9780306480546

Handbook for the Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides Book Description :

This publication deals with soil erosion and sedimentation. Soil erosion and associated sediment deposition are natural landscape-forming processes that can be greatly accelerated by human intervention through deforestation, overgrazing, and non-sustainable farming practices. Soil erosion and sedimentation may not only cause on-site degradation of the natural resource base, but also off-site problems— downstream sediment deposition in fields, floodplains and water bodies, water pollution, eutrophication and reservoir siltation, etc. —with serious environmental and economic impairment. There is an urgent need for accurate information to quantify the problem and to underpin the selection of effective soil-conservation technologies and sedimentation-remediation strategies, including assessment of environmental and economic impacts. Existing classical techniques to document soil erosion are capable of meeting some of these needs, but they all possess important limitations. The quest for alternative techniques for assessing soil erosion, to complement existing methods, directed attention to the use of environmental radionuclides, in particular fallout as tracers to quantify rates and establish patterns of soil redistribution within the landscape. The concept of a project on the use of environmental radionuclides to quantify soil redistribution was first formulated at an Advisory Group Meeting convened in Vienna, April 1993, by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Fukushima Accident Book

Fukushima Accident

  • Author : Pavel P. Povinec
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release Date : 2013-07-09
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN 10 : 9780124114876

Fukushima Accident Book Description :

Fukushima Accident presents up-to-date information on radioactivity released to the atmosphere and the ocean after the accident on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, on the distribution of radionuclides in the world atmosphere and oceans, and their impact on the total environment (man, fauna, and flora). The book will evaluate and discuss the post-Fukushima situation, emphasizing radionuclide impacts on the terrestrial and marine environments, and compare it with the pre-Fukushima sources of radionuclides in the environment. The authors’ results, as well as knowledge gathered from the literature, will provide up-to-date information on the present status of the topics. Fukushima Accident is based on the environmental and nuclear research; however, the presentation will be suitable for university-level readers. 2013 PROSE Award winner in Environmental Science from the Association of American Publishers Covers atmospheric and marine radioactivity, providing information on the global atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and world oceans Examines radiation doses to the public and biota to understand the health risks to the public and ecosystems Provides information on monitoring radionuclides in the environment – information on sources of radionuclides, their temporal and spatial variations, and radionuclide levels Covers transport of radionuclides from different sources (e.g. nuclear power plants) as well as atmospheric simulations and modeling approaches

Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis Book

Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis

  • Author : John E. Till
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2008-07-10
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 728
  • ISBN 10 : 0199722919

Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis Book Description :

Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis comprehensively explains methods used for estimating risk to people exposed to radioactive materials released to the environment by nuclear facilities or in an emergency such as a nuclear terrorist event. This is the first book that merges the diverse disciplines necessary for estimating where radioactive materials go in the environment and the risk they present to people. It is not only essential to managers and scientists, but is also a teaching text. The chapters are arranged to guide the reader through the risk assessment process, beginning with the source term (where the radioactive material comes from) and ending with the conversion to risk. In addition to presenting mathematical models used in risk assessment, data is included so the reader can perform the calculations. Each chapter also provides examples and working problems. The book will be a critical component of the rebirth of nuclear energy now taking place, as well as an essential resource to prepare for and respond to a nuclear emergency.

Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides Book

Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides

  • Author : Jukka Lehto
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2011-01-19
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 426
  • ISBN 10 : 9783527633029

Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides Book Description :

Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

Environmental Radionuclides Book

Environmental Radionuclides

  • Author : Klaus Froehlich
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2009-09-23
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN 10 : 0080913296

Environmental Radionuclides Book Description :

Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis V Book

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis V

  • Author : Peter Warwick
  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release Date : 2015-07-27
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 226
  • ISBN 10 : 9781782621553

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis V Book Description :

Incidents in the past have made scientists aware of the need for accurate methods of radionuclide analyses in order to estimate the risk to the public from released radioactivity. This book is an authoritative, up-to-date collection of research contributions presented at the 12th International Symposium on Environmental Radiochemical Analysis. Representing the work of leading scientists from across the globe it presents information on radiochemical analysis, measurement of radioactivity, naturally occurring radioactive materials, radioactively contaminated land, fate of radionuclides in natural and engineered environments and behaviour and analysis of radionuclides in radioactive wastes. This essential work will be a key reference for graduates and professionals who work across fields involving analytical chemistry, environmental science and technology, and waste disposal.

Radioactivity in the Environment Book

Radioactivity in the Environment

  • Author : Vlado Valkovic
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2000-09-26
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 696
  • ISBN 10 : 9780080540245

Radioactivity in the Environment Book Description :

Numerous sources of ionizing radiation can lead to human exposure: natural sources, nuclear explosions, nuclear power generation, use of radiation in medical, industrial and research purposes, and radiation emitting consumer products. Before assessing the radiation dose to a population one requires a precise knowledge of the activity of a number of radionuclides. The basis for the assessment of the dose to a population from a release of radioactivity to the environment, the estimation of the potential clinical heath effects due to the dose received and, ultimately, the implementation of countermeasures to protect the population, is the measurement of radioactive contamination in the environment after the release. It is the purpose of this book to present the facts about the presence of radionuclides in the environment, natural and man made. There is no aspect of radioactivity, which has marked the passing century, not mentioned or discussed in this book.