Autophagy of the Nervous System Book

Autophagy of the Nervous System


  • Author : Zhenyu Yue
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2012
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 426
  • ISBN 10 : 9789814350440

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Autophagy of the Nervous System Excerpt :

What is autophagy? Why would neurons or other brain cells digest parts of themselves through autophagy? How can autophagy save the lives of cells under some conditions, but act as a culprit or accomplice to cell death in others? How does dysfunction of autophagy contribute to neurological diseases and can it be repaired or restored? This book addresses these questions and provide an expert view of the emerging concepts in autophagy research, focusing on autophagic processes and regulation in neurons. Current experimental evidence for both evolutionarily conserved and specialized regulatory mechanisms for autophagy in the mammalian nervous system will be presented. Advances in our understanding of the complex interplay of autophagy induction and downregulation will be discussed in relation to the critical balance needed to modulate neuroprotection versus neurodegeneration in the context of neurological diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, ischemic-hypoxic and lysosomal diseases.

Autophagy in Health and Disease Book

Autophagy in Health and Disease


  • Author : Beverly Rothermel
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2021-09-22
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 454
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128220047

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Autophagy in Health and Disease Excerpt :

Autophagy in Health and Disease, Second Edition provides a comprehensive overview of the process of autophagy and its impact on human physiology and pathophysiology. It expands on the scope of the first edition by covering a wider range of cell types, developmental processes, and organ systems. The second edition is an international effort by investigators from 15 different countries whose many contributions are comprised in 28 chapters organized into six sections. The first section (Chapters 1-7) covers foundational concepts, including history, trajectory of the research field, mechanisms of autophagy, and autophagy regulation. The second section (Chapters 8-11) details developmental aspects, including stem cells, embryogenesis, hematopoiesis, and paligenosis. The subsequent sections are devoted to the role of autophagy in specific organ systems involved in metabolic control and diabetes (Chapters 12-15), the cardiovascular system (Chapters 16-18), and the nervous system (Chapters 19-20). The final section (Chapters 21-28) addresses autophagy in other organ systems vital to human health and longevity. Also included are chapters on microautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy, and the potential for autophagy as a therapeutic target. Autophagy in Health and Disease is invaluable to anyone new to the field as well as established investigators looking for a broader understanding of autophagy from outside their specific field of study. Provides a comprehensive overview of the process of autophagy and its impact on human physiology and pathology Offers extended coverage of the mechanisms that mediate autophagy Covers the role of autophagy in stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as the regenerative process of paligenosis Highlights important questions that remain to be addressed

The Role of Basal Autophagy in Oligodendrocyte Development Book

The Role of Basal Autophagy in Oligodendrocyte Development


  • Author : Cheng Yang
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2019
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:1167740817

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The Role of Basal Autophagy in Oligodendrocyte Development Excerpt :

Neurodegenerative diseases can be caused by abnormal protein accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular oxidative stress, all of which fall within the realm of autophagy, including autophagic clearance of protein aggregates and autophagic degradation of organelles (e.g. mitophagy). Although the exact mechanisms regulating autophagy in the central nervous system (CNS) remain unknown, it is likely that autophagy failure plays a critical role in the pathology of neurodegenerative disease. This study investigates the role of basal autophagy in oligodendrocyte (OL) development and OL function, focusing on autophagic activity in OL lineage cells and the effect of autophagy on OL production during OL development and in adulthood. It has been reported that myelinophagy, a recently discovered form of selective autophagy, is involved in the degradation of myelin and promotes myelin clearance in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). My current study also examines the role of autophagy in myelination, which has not yet been well investigated. We generate mice lacking autophagy related gene 5 (Atg5) specifically in OL lineage cells to study the role of autophagy in OL development and OL function. Employing immunostaining, electron microscopy and lipidomics analysis, we found that although the loss of autophagy does not have an evident effect on the proliferation and differentiation of OL precursors during OL development, it can cause abnormal aggregations of intracellular proteins in adult-born OLs with age, indicating that autophagy primarily affects adult-born OL function. In addition, a number of astrocytes become reactive in the cortex of these mice, which is the hallmark in response to the CNS pathologies, hinting at the importance of OL autophagy in maintaining brain homeostasis.

Autophagy   A Double Edged Sword Book

Autophagy A Double Edged Sword


  • Author : Yannick Bailly
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2013-04-17
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 524
  • ISBN 10 : 9789535110620

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Autophagy A Double Edged Sword Excerpt :

The chapters in this book review the latest advances in the molecular mechanisms of autophagy, highlighting some of the most challenging research topics. The focus is mainly on how this basic cell defense mechanism comes into play in various pathologies, including liver diseases, myopathies, infectious diseases, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. In these diseases, the contradictory autophagy roles of cell survival versus cell death emphasize the necessity of taking into account this double-edged nature in future development of already promising, autophagy- modulating, therapies.

Autophagy in Peripheral Neuropathy Book

Autophagy in Peripheral Neuropathy


  • Author : Ayman Osman
  • Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
  • Release Date : 2017-10-23
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 54
  • ISBN 10 : 9789176854723

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Autophagy in Peripheral Neuropathy Excerpt :

Peripheral neuropathy includes a wide range of diseases affecting millions around the world, and many of these diseases have unknown etiology. Peripheral neuropathy in diabetes represents a large proportion of peripheral neuropathies. Nerve damage can also be caused by trauma. Peripheral neuropathies are a significant clinical problem and efficient treatments are largely lacking. In the case of a transected nerve, different methods have been used to repair or reconstruct the nerve, including the use of nerve conduits, but functional recovery is usually poor. Autophagy, a cellular mechanism that recycles damaged proteins, is impaired in the brain in many neurodegenerative diseases affecting animals and humans. No research, however, has investigated the presence of autophagy in the human peripheral nervous system. In this study, I present the first structural evidence of autophagy in human peripheral nerves. I also show that the density of autophagy structures is higher in peripheral nerves of patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) and inflammatory neuropathy than in controls. The density of these structures increases with the severity of the neuropathy. In animal model, using Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with diabetes resembling human type 2 diabetes, activation of autophagy by local administration of rapamycin incorporated in collagen conduits that were used for reconnection of the transected sciatic nerve led to an increase in autophagy proteins LC3 and a decrease in p62 suggesting that the autophagic flux was activated. In addition, immunoreactivity of neurofilaments, which are parts of the cytoskeleton of axons, was increased indicating increased axonal regeneration. I also show that many proteins involved in axonal regeneration and cell survival were up-regulated by rapamycin in the injured sciatic nerve of GK rats four weeks after injury. Taken together, these findings provide new knowledge about the involvement of autophagy in neuropathy and

Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Book

Peripheral Nerve Regeneration


  • Author : Giovanna Gambarotta
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2019-12-24
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889632688

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Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Excerpt :

Autophagy  Cancer  Other Pathologies  Inflammation  Immunity  Infection  and Aging Book

Autophagy Cancer Other Pathologies Inflammation Immunity Infection and Aging


  • Author : M. A. Hayat
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2016-12-28
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 430
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128094273

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Autophagy Cancer Other Pathologies Inflammation Immunity Infection and Aging Excerpt :

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging is an eleven volume series that discusses in detail all aspects of autophagy machinery in the context of health, cancer, and other pathologies. Autophagy maintains homeostasis during starvation or stress conditions by balancing the synthesis of cellular components and their deregulation by autophagy. This series discusses the characterization of autophagosome-enriched vaccines and its efficacy in cancer immunotherapy. Autophagy serves to maintain healthy cells, tissues, and organs, but also promotes cancer survival and growth of established tumors. Impaired or deregulated autophagy can also contribute to disease pathogenesis. Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and forward-thinking, these books offer a valuable guide to cellular processes while also inciting researchers to explore their potentially important connections. Presents the most advanced information regarding the role of the autophagic system in life and death Examines whether autophagy acts fundamentally as a cell survivor or cell death pathway or both Introduces new, more effective therapeutic strategies in the development of targeted drugs and programmed cell death, providing information that will aid in preventing detrimental inflammation Features recent advancements in the molecular mechanisms underlying a large number of genetic and epigenetic diseases and abnormalities, including atherosclerosis and CNS tumors, and their development and treatment Includes chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe—the broadest, most expert coverage available

Autophagy  Lower Eukaryotes and Non Mammalian Systems Book
Score: 5
From 1 Ratings

Autophagy Lower Eukaryotes and Non Mammalian Systems


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2011-09-02
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 808
  • ISBN 10 : 0080923267

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Autophagy Lower Eukaryotes and Non Mammalian Systems Excerpt :

This is the companion volume to Daniel Klionsky’s Autophagy: Lower Eukaryotes, which features the basic methods in autophagy covering yeasts and alternative fungi. Klionsky is one of the leading authorities in the field. He is the editor-in-chief of Autophagy. The November 2007 issue of Nature Reviews highlighted his article, “Autophagy: from phenomenology to molecular understanding in less than a decade. He is currently editing guidelines for the field, with 230 contributing authors that will publish in Autophagy. Particularly in times of stress, like starvation and disease, higher organisms have an internal mechanism in their cells for chewing up and recycling parts of themselves. The process of internal “house-cleaning in the cell is called autophagy – literally self-eating. Breakthroughs in understanding the molecular basis of autophagy came after the cloning of ATG1 in yeast. These ATG genes in yeast were the stepping stones to the explosion of research into the molecular analysis of autophagy in higher eukaryotes. In the future, this research will help to design clinical approaches that can turn on autophagy and halt tumor growth. *Establishes the functional roles of specific cellular proteins in selective and nonselective autophagy in mammalian cells, which aides researchers in determining why autophagy is shut down in neoplastia (growth of abnormal tissue mass) and turned on during bacterial invasion *Includes methods to evaluate the role of autophagy in the drug-induced cell death of cancer cells in culture, which helps researchers design clinical approaches that can turn on autophagy and halt tumor growth *Covers higher eukaryotes including lifespan in C.elegans to marine organisms and bridging into the clinical aspects, including autophagy in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML is one of four types of leukemia), lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cardiac cells.

Polyglutamine Disorders Book

Polyglutamine Disorders


  • Author : Clévio Nóbrega
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2018-02-09
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 469
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319717791

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Polyglutamine Disorders Excerpt :

This book provides a cutting-edge review of polyglutamine disorders. It primarily focuses on two main aspects: (1) the mechanisms underlying the pathologies’ development and progression, and (2) the therapeutic strategies that are currently being explored to stop or delay disease progression. Polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders are a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases with a fatal outcome that are caused by an abnormal expansion of a coding trinucleotide repeat (CAG), which is then translated in an abnormal protein with an elongated glutamine tract (Q). To date, nine polyQ disorders have been identified and described: dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA); Huntington’s disease (HD); spinal–bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA); and six spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 17). The genetic basis of polyQ disorders is well established and described, and despite important advances that have opened up the possibility of generating genetic models of the disease, the mechanisms that cause neuronal degeneration are still largely unknown and there is currently no treatment available for these disorders. Further, it is believed that the different polyQ may share some mechanisms and pathways contributing to neurodegeneration and disease progression.

Induction of Central Nervous System Disease by the Adaptive Immune Response Book

Induction of Central Nervous System Disease by the Adaptive Immune Response


  • Author : Robert Weissert
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2017-11-23
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889453474

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Induction of Central Nervous System Disease by the Adaptive Immune Response Excerpt :

Over the last years it has become evident that many neurological diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are induced by a specific adaptive immune response directed against molecules expressed on CNS-resident cells. Well-recognized examples are anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which is characterized by the presence of antibodies against neuron-expressed NMDAR, or neuromyelitis optica (NMO), induced by antibodies to astrocyte-expressed aquaporin-4. Many more examples exist, and antibodies, and T or/and B cells have increasingly been associated with CNS disease. Often the symptoms of these diseases have not been typically reported to have an immune aetiology. Beside classical neurological symptoms like ataxia, vision disturbance, and motor or sensory symptoms, these can include cognitive disturbances, behavioral abnormalities, or/and epileptic seizures. Although much has been learned regarding the pathophysiology of prototypic examples of these disorders, there are still major gaps in our understanding of their biology. This may be due to the fact that they are rare diseases, and their therapies are still very limited. This research topic includes contributions addressing the analysis of the adaptive immune response driving disease including target antigens, molecular epitope mapping, and factors involved in the disease pathogenesis such as complement activation cascades, genetic and genomic regulation, as well as environmental triggers. Diagnostic criteria and methods, and treatment are also discussed. The overall aim of the volume is to review progress in our pathophysiological understanding of immune-mediated CNS disorders in order to advance diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and ultimately improve outcomes for patients.

Autophagy Book

Autophagy


  • Author : Kunikazu Tanji
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-09-03
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 440
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128069530

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Autophagy Excerpt :

Lewy body disease (LBD) consists of Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, and is pathologically characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions such as Lewy bodies. Formation of cytoplasmic inclusions is regarded as one of the pathophysiological events related to protein degradation systems – the ubiquitin–proteasome and autophagy–lysosome systems. Animal experiments clearly showed that alteration of these systems results in behavioral defects such as neurodegeneration and formation of ubiquitin-positive cytoplasmic inclusions. Our previous study has shown that autophagosomal components in LBD are qualitatively and quantitatively different from those in controls. These findings suggest that the autophagic process is impaired through alteration of autophagosomal components in LBD. Based on these results, we further discuss the capacity of autophagy to prevent LBD.