Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean Book

Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean


  • Author : Bruno David
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2015-10-20
  • Genre: Nature
  • Pages : 130
  • ISBN 10 : 9780081004852

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Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean Excerpt :

The Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent is vast, in particular, its history, its isolation, and climate, making it a unique "laboratory case" for experimental evolution, adaptation and ecology. Its evolutionary history of adaptation provide a wealth of information on the functioning of the biosphere and its potential. The Southern Ocean is the result of a history of nearly 40 million years marked by the opening of the Straits south of Australia and South America and intense cooling. The violence of its weather, its very low temperatures, the formation of huge ice-covered areas, as its isolation makes the Southern Ocean a world apart. This book discusses the consequences for the evolution, ecology and biodiversity of the region, including endemism, slowed metabolism, longevity, gigantism, and its larval stages; features which make this vast ocean a "natural laboratory" for exploring the ecological adaptive processes, scalable to work in extreme environmental conditions. Today, biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is facing global change, particularly in regional warming and acidification of water bodies. Unable to migrate further south, how will she cope, if any, to visitors from the North? Designed for curious readers to discover the immense ocean surrounding the most isolated and most inhospitable continent on the planet. Describes the Southern Ocean facing biodiversification due to global change Authored by scientists with experience of expeditions to the Southern Ocean

Fishes of the Southern Ocean Book

Fishes of the Southern Ocean


  • Author : Ofer Gon
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1990
  • Genre: Fishes
  • Pages : 462
  • ISBN 10 : UCSD:31822005692504

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Fishes of the Southern Ocean Excerpt :

Oceanography and Marine Biology Book

Oceanography and Marine Biology


  • Author : S. J. Hawkins
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2018-09-03
  • Genre: Nature
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN 10 : 9780429845765

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Oceanography and Marine Biology Excerpt :

Chapter 3 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license. https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/tandfbis/rt-files/docs/Open+Access+Chapters/9781138318625_oachapter3.pdf Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review remains one of the most cited sources in marine science and oceanography. The ever increasing interest in work in oceanography and marine biology and its relevance to global environmental issues, especially global climate change and its impacts, creates a demand for authoritative reviews summarizing the results of recent research. OMBAR has catered to this demand since its foundation more than 50 years ago. Following the favourable reception and complimentary reviews accorded to all the volumes, Volume 56 continues to regard the marine sciences—with all their various aspects—as a unity. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of marine science are dealt with by experts actively engaged in these fields, and every chapter is peer-reviewed by other experts working actively in the specific areas of interest. The series is an essential reference text for researchers and students in all fields of marine science and related subjects, and it finds a place in libraries of universities, marine laboratories, research institutes and government departments.

Wild Sea Book

Wild Sea


  • Author : Joy McCann
  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Release Date : 2019-04-25
  • Genre: Nature
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN 10 : 9780226622415

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Wild Sea Excerpt :

“The Southern Ocean is a wild and elusive place, an ocean like no other. With its waters lying between the Antarctic continent and the southern coastlines of Australia, New Zealand, South America, and South Africa, it is the most remote and inaccessible part of the planetary ocean, the only part that flows around Earth unimpeded by any landmass. It is notorious amongst sailors for its tempestuous winds and hazardous fog and ice. Yet it is a difficult ocean to pin down. Its southern boundary, defined by the icy continent of Antarctica, is constantly moving in a seasonal dance of freeze and thaw. To the north, its waters meet and mingle with those of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans along a fluid boundary that defies the neat lines of a cartographer.” So begins Joy McCann’s Wild Sea, the remarkable story of the world’s remote Southern, or Antarctic, Ocean. Unlike the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic Oceans with their long maritime histories, little is known about the Southern Ocean. This book takes readers beyond the familiar heroic narratives of polar exploration to explore the nature of this stormy circumpolar ocean and its place in Western and Indigenous histories. Drawing from a vast archive of charts and maps, sea captains’ journals, whalers’ log books, missionaries’ correspondence, voyagers’ letters, scientific reports, stories, myths, and her own experiences, McCann embarks on a voyage of discovery across its surfaces and into its depths, revealing its distinctive physical and biological processes as well as the people, species, events, and ideas that have shaped our perceptions of it. The result is both a global story of changing scientific knowledge about oceans and their vulnerability to human actions and a local one, showing how the Southern Ocean has defined and sustained southern environments and people over time. Beautifully and powerfully written, Wild Sea will raise a broader awareness and appreciation of the natural and cu

Whales of the Southern Ocean Book

Whales of the Southern Ocean


  • Author : Yuri Mikhalev
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2020-01-28
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 382
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030292522

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Whales of the Southern Ocean Excerpt :

Based on actual data of Soviet whaling, and reliable methodologies that existed at the time when this monograph was written, it examines the distribution and migration patterns of whales of the Southern Ocean. It defines distinct populations on the basis of phenes, as well as whale breeding zones, which are located in the adjacent to the Southern Ocean waters at lower latitudes. The book records the presence of a new species of killer whale in the Southern Ocean - Orcinus nana. Prenatal growth patterns, pregnancy and lactation duration, mean sizes of new-born whales are determined. Methods for the graphic recording of registering structures are described, and an original method for their decoding is proposed to determine animal age. The age of sexual and physical maturity, life expectancy is determined. Earlier unknown “pair formations” on the lower jaw of baleen whales and sperm whales are described, together with their macro, histological and electronic microscopic structure. The impact of the extermination of whales on the Southern Ocean ecosystem is examined, recommendations for control of the current state of whale populations are given, and perspectives of whale population recovery are estimated. Regions that could be used as testing areas for whale registration method are defined. The book is intended for biologist-cytologists, ecologists and other specialists interested in cetaceans, and for biology students.

Ecosystems of the Deep Oceans Book

Ecosystems of the Deep Oceans


  • Author : P.A. Tyler
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2003-03-27
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 582
  • ISBN 10 : 008049465X

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Ecosystems of the Deep Oceans Excerpt :

This volume examines the deep sea ecosystem from a variety of perspectives. The initial chapters examine the deep-sea floor, the deep pelagic environment and the more specialised chemosynthetic environments of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. These environments are examined from the perspective of the relationship of deep-sea animals to their physico-chemical environment. Later chapters examine the biogeography of the main deep oceans (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian) with particular attention to the downward flux of surface-derived organic matter and how this drives the processes within the deep-sea ecosystem. The peripheral deep seas including the polar seas and the marginal deep seas (inter alia the Mediterranean, Red, Caribbean and Okhotsk seas) are explored in the same context. The final chapters examine the processes occurring in the deep sea and include an analysis of why the deep sea has high species diversity, how the fauna respond to organic input and how species have adapted reproductive activity in the deep sea. The volume concludes with an analysis of the anthropogenic impact on the deep sea.

Ocean Acidification Book

Ocean Acidification


  • Author : National Research Council
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2010-10-14
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 200
  • ISBN 10 : 9780309153591

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Ocean Acidification Excerpt :

The ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions. This benefits human society by moderating the rate of climate change, but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry. Carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification. The long term consequences of ocean acidification are not known, but are expected to result in changes to many ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean reviews the current state of knowledge, explores gaps in understanding, and identifies several key findings. Like climate change, ocean acidification is a growing global problem that will intensify with continued CO2 emissions and has the potential to change marine ecosystems and affect benefits to society. The federal government has taken positive initial steps by developing a national ocean acidification program, but more information is needed to fully understand and address the threat that ocean acidification may pose to marine ecosystems and the services they provide. In addition, a global observation network of chemical and biological sensors is needed to monitor changes in ocean conditions attributable to acidification.

Southern Ocean Book

Southern Ocean


  • Author : Jonah Young
  • Publisher : Ice Press
  • Release Date : 2015-01-02
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 78
  • ISBN 10 : 978186723xxxx

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Southern Ocean Excerpt :

A large body of recent oceanographic research has shown that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), an ocean current that flows from west to east around Antarctica, plays a crucial role in global ocean circulation. The region where the cold waters of the ACC meet and mingle with the warmer waters of the north defines a distinct border - the Antarctic Convergence - which fluctuates with the seasons, but which encompasses a discrete body of water and a unique ecologic region. The Convergence concentrates nutrients, which promotes marine plant life, and which, in turn, allows for a greater abundance of animal life. In 2000, the International Hydrographic Organization delimited the waters within the Convergence as a fifth world ocean - the Southern Ocean - by combining the southern portions of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The Southern Ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south latitude, which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit and which approximates the extent of the Antarctic Convergence. As such, the Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean).

Antarctic Ecosystems Book

Antarctic Ecosystems


  • Author : Alex D. Rogers
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2012-02-28
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 756
  • ISBN 10 : 9781444347227

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Antarctic Ecosystems Excerpt :

Since its discovery Antarctica has held a deep fascination for biologists. Extreme environmental conditions, seasonality and isolation have lead to some of the most striking examples of natural selection and adaptation on Earth. Paradoxically, some of these adaptations may pose constraints on the ability of the Antarctic biota to respond to climate change. Parts of Antarctica are showing some of the largest changes in temperature and other environmental conditions in the world. In this volume, published in association with the Royal Society, leading polar scientists present a synthesis of the latest research on the biological systems in Antarctica, covering organisms from microbes to vertebrate higher predators. This book comes at a time when new technologies and approaches allow the implications of climate change and other direct human impacts on Antarctica to be viewed at a range of scales; across entire regions, whole ecosystems and down to the level of species and variation within their genomes. Chapters address both Antarctic terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and the scientific and management challenges of the future are explored.

Biodiversity and Ecophysiology of Yeasts Book

Biodiversity and Ecophysiology of Yeasts


  • Author : Carlos Augusto Rosa
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2006-03-30
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 580
  • ISBN 10 : 9783540309857

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Biodiversity and Ecophysiology of Yeasts Excerpt :

In the last few decades more and more yeast habitats have been explored, spanning cold climates to tropical regions and dry deserts to rainforests. As a result, a large body of ecological data has been accumulated and the number of known yeast species has increased rapidly. This book provides an overview of the biodiversity of yeasts in different habitats. Recent advances achieved by the application of molecular biological methods in the field of yeast taxonomy and ecology are also incorporated in the book. Wherever possible, the interaction between yeasts and the surrounding environment is discussed.

Encyclopedia of the Antarctic Book
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Encyclopedia of the Antarctic


  • Author : Beau Riffenburgh
  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Release Date : 2007
  • Genre: History
  • Pages : 1146
  • ISBN 10 : 9780415970242

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Encyclopedia of the Antarctic Excerpt :

Antarctica is the only major part of the Earth's landmass not directly governed by one nation, but under the control of a treaty, with a multitude of acceding nations. This reference brings together large quantities of information on the wide variety of factors, issues, and individuals influencing and relating to the Antarctic.