Fundamentals of Clinical Trials Book
Score: 4.5
From 2 Ratings

Fundamentals of Clinical Trials


  • Author : Lawrence M. Friedman
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 1998
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 361
  • ISBN 10 : 0387985867

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Fundamentals of Clinical Trials Excerpt :

The randomized control clinical trial has become the gold standard scientific method for the evaluation of pharmaceuticals, biologics, devices, procedures and diagnostic tests. This trial design has been successfully used in both therapeutic and disease prevention trials. It is superior to alternative designs by eliminating several sources of bias which exist in those designs. This role has evolved over the past three decades in a number of disease areas including cardiology, opthalmology, cancer and AIDS. While the specifics of using the randomized control design for a specific intervention and disease may differ, the basic fundamentals still apply in developing the study protocol and operational procedures. These fundamentals still apply in developing the study protocol and operational procedures. These fundamentals include identifying the specific questions to be tested and appropriate outcome measures, determining an adequate sample size, specifying the randomization procedure, detailing the intervention with visit schedules for subject evaluation, establishing an interim data and safety monitoring plan, detailing the final analysis plan and determining the organizational structure.This text is structured to address the fundamentals as the protocol for a clinical trial is being developed. A chapter is devoted to each of the critical areas of a protocol to aid the clinical trial researcher. The fundamentals described in this text are based on sound scientific methodology, statistical principles and years of accumulated experience by the three authors. Collectively, the authors have been active researchers in a broad area of clinical trials including cardiology, cancer, opthalmology, diabetes, osteoporosis, AIDS, women's health and screening tests. In these studies, the authors have served as members of the steering committee responsible for developing the protocol and as members of data and safety monitoring committees. The fundamentals were proposed in the first

Clinical Trials Book

Clinical Trials


  • Author : Tom Brody
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2016-02-19
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 896
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128042588

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Clinical Trials Excerpt :

Clinical Trials, Second Edition, offers those engaged in clinical trial design a valuable and practical guide. This book takes an integrated approach to incorporate biomedical science, laboratory data of human study, endpoint specification, legal and regulatory aspects and much more with the fundamentals of clinical trial design. It provides an overview of the design options along with the specific details of trial design and offers guidance on how to make appropriate choices. Full of numerous examples and now containing actual decisions from FDA reviewers to better inform trial design, the 2nd edition of Clinical Trials is a must-have resource for early and mid-career researchers and clinicians who design and conduct clinical trials. Contains new and fully revised material on key topics such as biostatistics, biomarkers, orphan drugs, biosimilars, drug regulations in Europe, drug safety, regulatory approval and more Extensively covers the "study schema" and related features of study design Incorporates laboratory data from studies on human patients to provide a concrete tool for understanding the concepts in the design and conduct of clinical trials Includes decisions made by FDA reviewers when granting approval of a drug as real world learning examples for readers

Global Clinical Trials Book

Global Clinical Trials


  • Author : Richard Chin
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2011-05-06
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 522
  • ISBN 10 : 012381538X

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Global Clinical Trials Excerpt :

This book will explore the great opportunities and challenges which exist in conducting clinical trials in developing countries. By exploring the various regulations specific to the major players and providing insight into the logistical challenges including language barriers, this book provides a working tool for clinical researchers and administrators to navigate the intricacies of clinical trials in developing countries. Important topics such as ethical issues will be handled very carefully to highlight the significant differences of conducting this work in various jurisdictions. Overall, it will present a clear and comprehensive guide to the ins-and-outs of clinical trials in various countries to assist in design, development, and effectiveness of these trials. Contributors include high-profile, respected figures who have paved the way for clinical trials in developing countries Provides hands-on tools for regulatory and legal requirements and qualification, design, management, and reporting Case studies outline successes, failures, lessons learned and prospects for future collaboration Includes country-specific guidelines for the most utilized countries Foreword by David Feigel, former Head of CDRH at FDA

The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials Book

The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials


  • Author : National Research Council
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2011-01-21
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 162
  • ISBN 10 : 9780309158145

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The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials Excerpt :

Randomized clinical trials are the primary tool for evaluating new medical interventions. Randomization provides for a fair comparison between treatment and control groups, balancing out, on average, distributions of known and unknown factors among the participants. Unfortunately, these studies often lack a substantial percentage of data. This missing data reduces the benefit provided by the randomization and introduces potential biases in the comparison of the treatment groups. Missing data can arise for a variety of reasons, including the inability or unwillingness of participants to meet appointments for evaluation. And in some studies, some or all of data collection ceases when participants discontinue study treatment. Existing guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials, and the analysis of the resulting data, provide only limited advice on how to handle missing data. Thus, approaches to the analysis of data with an appreciable amount of missing values tend to be ad hoc and variable. The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials concludes that a more principled approach to design and analysis in the presence of missing data is both needed and possible. Such an approach needs to focus on two critical elements: (1) careful design and conduct to limit the amount and impact of missing data and (2) analysis that makes full use of information on all randomized participants and is based on careful attention to the assumptions about the nature of the missing data underlying estimates of treatment effects. In addition to the highest priority recommendations, the book offers more detailed recommendations on the conduct of clinical trials and techniques for analysis of trial data.

Transforming Clinical Research in the United States Book

Transforming Clinical Research in the United States


  • Author : Institute of Medicine
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2010-10-22
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 150
  • ISBN 10 : 0309163358

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Transforming Clinical Research in the United States Excerpt :

An ideal health care system relies on efficiently generating timely, accurate evidence to deliver on its promise of diminishing the divide between clinical practice and research. There are growing indications, however, that the current health care system and the clinical research that guides medical decisions in the United States falls far short of this vision. The process of generating medical evidence through clinical trials in the United States is expensive and lengthy, includes a number of regulatory hurdles, and is based on a limited infrastructure. The link between clinical research and medical progress is also frequently misunderstood or unsupported by both patients and providers. The focus of clinical research changes as diseases emerge and new treatments create cures for old conditions. As diseases evolve, the ultimate goal remains to speed new and improved medical treatments to patients throughout the world. To keep pace with rapidly changing health care demands, clinical research resources need to be organized and on hand to address the numerous health care questions that continually emerge. Improving the overall capacity of the clinical research enterprise will depend on ensuring that there is an adequate infrastructure in place to support the investigators who conduct research, the patients with real diseases who volunteer to participate in experimental research, and the institutions that organize and carry out the trials. To address these issues and better understand the current state of clinical research in the United States, the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held a 2-day workshop entitled Transforming Clinical Research in the United States. The workshop, summarized in this volume, laid the foundation for a broader initiative of the Forum addressing different aspects of clinical research. Future Forum plans include further examining regulatory, administrative, and structural barriers to the effecti

Handbook of Neuroemergency Clinical Trials Book

Handbook of Neuroemergency Clinical Trials


  • Author : Brett E. Skolnick
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2017-11-13
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128041017

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Handbook of Neuroemergency Clinical Trials Excerpt :

Handbook of Neuroemergency Clinical Trials, Second Edition, focuses on the practice of clinical trials in acute neuroscience populations, or what have been called neuroemergencies. Neuroemergencies are complex, life-threatening diseases and disorders, often with devastating consequences, including death or disability. The overall costs are staggering in terms of annual incidence and costs associated with treatment and survival, yet despite their significance as public health issues, there are few drugs and devices available for definitive treatment. The book focuses on novel therapies and the unique challenges their intended targets pose for the design and analysis of clinical trials. This volume provides neurologists, neuroscientists, and drug developers with a more complete understanding of the scientific and medical issues of relevance in designing and initiating clinical development plans for novel drugs intended for acute neuroscience populations. The editors provide the best understanding of the pitfalls associated with acute CNS drug development and the best information on how to approach and solve issues that have plagued drug development. Presents a comprehensive overview on clinical trials and drug development challenges in acute neuroscience populations Provides neurologists, neuroscientists and drug developers with a complete understanding of scientific and medical issues related to designing clinical trials Edited by leaders in the field who have designed and managed over 50 neuroemergency clinical trials

Clinical Trials in Oncology  Third Edition Book

Clinical Trials in Oncology Third Edition


  • Author : Stephanie Green
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2012-05-09
  • Genre: Mathematics
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN 10 : 9781439814482

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Clinical Trials in Oncology Third Edition Excerpt :

The third edition of the bestselling Clinical Trials in Oncology provides a concise, nontechnical, and thoroughly up-to-date review of methods and issues related to cancer clinical trials. The authors emphasize the importance of proper study design, analysis, and data management and identify the pitfalls inherent in these processes. In addition, the book has been restructured to have separate chapters and expanded discussions on general clinical trials issues, and issues specific to Phases I, II, and III. New sections cover innovations in Phase I designs, randomized Phase II designs, and overcoming the challenges of array data. Although this book focuses on cancer trials, the same issues and concepts are important in any clinical setting. As always, the authors use clear, lucid prose and a multitude of real-world examples to convey the principles of successful trials without the need for a strong statistics or mathematics background. Armed with Clinical Trials in Oncology, Third Edition, clinicians and statisticians can avoid the many hazards that can jeopardize the success of a trial.

Noninferiority Testing in Clinical Trials Book

Noninferiority Testing in Clinical Trials


  • Author : Tie-Hua Ng
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2014-12-01
  • Genre: Mathematics
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN 10 : 9781466561496

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Noninferiority Testing in Clinical Trials Excerpt :

Take Your NI Trial to the Next Level Reflecting the vast research on noninferiority (NI) designs from the past 15 years, Noninferiority Testing in Clinical Trials: Issues and Challenges explains how to choose the NI margin as a small fraction of the therapeutic effect of the active control in a clinical trial. Requiring no prior knowledge of NI testing, the book is easily accessible to both statisticians and nonstatisticians involved in drug development. With over 20 years of experience in this area, the author introduces the basic elements of the NI trials one at a time in a logical order. He discusses issues with estimating the effect size based on historical placebo control trials of the active control. The book covers fundamental concepts related to NI trials, such as assay sensitivity, constancy assumption, discounting, and preservation. It also describes patient populations, three-arm trials, and the equivalence of three or more groups.

Principles and Practice of Clinical Trial Medicine Book
Score: 4.5
From 2 Ratings

Principles and Practice of Clinical Trial Medicine


  • Author : Richard Chin
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2008-07-25
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 560
  • ISBN 10 : 0080557937

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Principles and Practice of Clinical Trial Medicine Excerpt :

Clinical trials are an important part of medicine and healthcare today, deciding which treatments we use to treat patients. Anyone involved in healthcare today must know the basics of running and interpreting clinical trial data. Written in an easy-to-understand style by authors who have considerable expertise and experience in both academia and industry, Principles and Practice of Clinical Trial Medicine covers all of the basics of clinical trials, from legal and ethical issues to statistics, to patient recruitment and reporting results. Jargon-free writing style enables those with less experience to run their own clinical trials and interpret data Book contains an ideal mix of theory and practice so researchers will understand both the rationale and logistics to clinical trial medicine Expert authorship whose experience includes running clinical trials in an academic as well as industry settings Numerous illustrations reinforce and elucidate key concepts and add to the book's overall pedagogy

A Practical Guide to Managing Clinical Trials Book

A Practical Guide to Managing Clinical Trials


  • Author : JoAnn Pfeiffer
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2017-05-18
  • Genre: Mathematics
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN 10 : 9781315299778

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A Practical Guide to Managing Clinical Trials Excerpt :

A Practical Guide to Managing Clinical Trials is a basic, comprehensive guide to conducting clinical trials. Designed for individuals working in research site operations, this user-friendly reference guides the reader through each step of the clinical trial process from site selection, to site set-up, subject recruitment, study visits, and to study close-out. Topics include staff roles/responsibilities/training, budget and contract review and management, subject study visits, data and document management, event reporting, research ethics, audits and inspections, consent processes, IRB, FDA regulations, and good clinical practices. Each chapter concludes with a review of key points and knowledge application. Unique to this book is "A View from India," a chapter-by-chapter comparison of clinical trial practices in India versus the U.S. Throughout the book and in Chapter 10, readers will glimpse some of the challenges and opportunities in the emerging and growing market of Indian clinical trials.

Small Clinical Trials Book

Small Clinical Trials


  • Author : Institute of Medicine
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2001-01-01
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 222
  • ISBN 10 : 0309171148

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Small Clinical Trials Excerpt :

Clinical trials are used to elucidate the most appropriate preventive, diagnostic, or treatment options for individuals with a given medical condition. Perhaps the most essential feature of a clinical trial is that it aims to use results based on a limited sample of research participants to see if the intervention is safe and effective or if it is comparable to a comparison treatment. Sample size is a crucial component of any clinical trial. A trial with a small number of research participants is more prone to variability and carries a considerable risk of failing to demonstrate the effectiveness of a given intervention when one really is present. This may occur in phase I (safety and pharmacologic profiles), II (pilot efficacy evaluation), and III (extensive assessment of safety and efficacy) trials. Although phase I and II studies may have smaller sample sizes, they usually have adequate statistical power, which is the committee's definition of a "large" trial. Sometimes a trial with eight participants may have adequate statistical power, statistical power being the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the hypothesis is false. Small Clinical Trials assesses the current methodologies and the appropriate situations for the conduct of clinical trials with small sample sizes. This report assesses the published literature on various strategies such as (1) meta-analysis to combine disparate information from several studies including Bayesian techniques as in the confidence profile method and (2) other alternatives such as assessing therapeutic results in a single treated population (e.g., astronauts) by sequentially measuring whether the intervention is falling above or below a preestablished probability outcome range and meeting predesigned specifications as opposed to incremental improvement.

Clinical Trials Book

Clinical Trials


  • Author : Stuart J. Pocock
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2013-07-17
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN 10 : 9781118794104

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Clinical Trials Excerpt :

This comprehensive, unified text on the principles and practice of clinical trials presents a detailed account of how to conduct the trials. It describes the design, analysis, and interpretation of clinical trials in a non-technical manner and provides a general perspective on their historical development, current status, and future strategy. Features examples derived from the author's personal experience.

Bayesian Approaches to Clinical Trials and Health Care Evaluation Book

Bayesian Approaches to Clinical Trials and Health Care Evaluation


  • Author : David J. Spiegelhalter
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2004-01-16
  • Genre: Mathematics
  • Pages : 408
  • ISBN 10 : 0471499757

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Bayesian Approaches to Clinical Trials and Health Care Evaluation Excerpt :

READ ALL ABOUT IT! David Spiegelhalter has recently joined the ranks of Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin and Stephen Hawking by becoming a fellow of the Royal Society. Originating from the Medical Research Council’s biostatistics unit, David has played a leading role in the Bristol heart surgery and Harold Shipman inquiries. Order a copy of this author’s comprehensive text TODAY! The Bayesian approach involves synthesising data and judgement in order to reach conclusions about unknown quantities and make predictions. Bayesian methods have become increasingly popular in recent years, notably in medical research, and although there are a number of books on Bayesian analysis, few cover clinical trials and biostatistical applications in any detail. Bayesian Approaches to Clinical Trials and Health-Care Evaluation provides a valuable overview of this rapidly evolving field, including basic Bayesian ideas, prior distributions, clinical trials, observational studies, evidence synthesis and cost-effectiveness analysis. Covers a broad array of essential topics, building from the basics to more advanced techniques. Illustrated throughout by detailed case studies and worked examples Includes exercises in all chapters Accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of statistics Authors are at the forefront of research into Bayesian methods in medical research Accompanied by a Web site featuring data sets and worked examples using Excel and WinBUGS - the most widely used Bayesian modelling package Bayesian Approaches to Clinical Trials and Health-Care Evaluation is suitable for students and researchers in medical statistics, statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry, and anyone involved in conducting clinical trials and assessment of health-care technology.

Virtual Clinical Trials Book

Virtual Clinical Trials


  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2019-11-16
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 126
  • ISBN 10 : 9780309494885

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Virtual Clinical Trials Excerpt :

Successful drug development relies on accurate and efficient clinical trials to deliver the best and most effective pharmaceuticals and clinical care to patients. However, the current model for clinical trials is outdated, inefficient and costly. Clinical trials are limited by small sample sizes that do not reflect variations among patients in the real world, financial burdens on participants, and slow processes, and these factors contribute to the disconnect between clinical research and clinical practice. On November 28-29, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to investigate the current clinical trials system and explore the potential benefits and challenges of implementing virtual clinical trials as an enhanced alternative for the future. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Global Clinical Trials Playbook Book

Global Clinical Trials Playbook


  • Author : Menghis Bairu
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2012
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 310
  • ISBN 10 : 9780124157873

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Global Clinical Trials Playbook Excerpt :

Pharmaceuticals companies, biotech companies, and CROs, regardless of size, all face the same challenge of managing costs and operational execution associated with bringing a valuable drugs and devices to market. Because of timeline pressures and cost as well as the growing interest in "neglected diseases" and diseases affecting the emerging nations, clinical trials are increasingly conducted in emerging markets and developing countries where infrastructure, leadership, skilled personnel and a governance are at a premium. Working with academics, regulatory professionals, safety officers, experts from the pharma industry and CROs, the editors have put together this up-to-date, step-by-step guide book to building and enhancing global clinical trial capacity in emerging markets and developing countries. This book covers the design, conduct, and tools to build and/or enhance human capacity to execute such trials, appealing to individuals in health ministries, pharmaceutical companies, world health organizations, academia, industry, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) who are managing global clinical trials. * Gives medical professionals the business tools needed to effectively execute clinical trials throughout the world * Provides real world international examples which illustrate the practical translation of principles * Includes forms, templates, and additional references for standardization in a number of global scenarios