Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts Book

Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts


  • Author : P Dillmann
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9781782421573

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts Excerpt :

The conservation of metallic archaeological and historic artefacts is a major challenge whether they are ancient bronzes or relics of our more recent industrial past. Based on the work of Working Party 21 Corrosion of Archaeological and Historical Artefacts within the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC), this important book summarises key recent research on analytical techniques, understanding corrosion processes and preventing the corrosion of cultural heritage metallic artefacts. After an introductory part on some of the key issues in this area, part two reviews the range of analytical techniques for measuring and analysing corrosion processes, including time resolved spectroelectrochemistry, voltammetry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Part three reviews different types of corrosion processes for a range of artefacts, whilst part four discusses on-site monitoring techniques. The final part of the book summaries a range of conservation techniques and strategies to conserve cultural heritage metallic artefacts. Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts is an important reference for all those involved in archaeology and conservation, including governments, museums as well as those undertaking research in archaeology and corrosion science. Summarises key research on analytical techniques for measuring and analysing corrosion processes Provides detailed understanding of corrosion processes and corrosion prevention Discusses on-site monitoring techniques

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : E. Cano
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091456

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

This chapter reviews the applicability and specific uses of corrosion inhibitors in metal conservation practice. Corrosion inhibitors are one of the different methods used by conservation-restoration professionals to preserve metallic cultural heritage. In the first part, specific requirements and needs for corrosion inhibitors in conservation treatments are reviewed, as well as the different methods for the assessment of their efficiency. The second part of the chapter reviews the different inhibitors used by type of metals: copper and its alloys, iron and its alloys, and other metals (including silver, lead and zinc), from traditional ones to state-of-the-art treatments.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : P. Letardi
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091265

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

The basic principles of corrosion and electrochemistry are briefly summarised to indicate the capabilities of electrochemical techniques in diagnostic and conservation of heritage metals. The basic elements of each electrochemical measurement – cell, electrolyte, instrumentation – are schematically illustrated in the specific application to cultural heritage. The different measurement techniques are reviewed, divided into three groups: (1) potential measurements; (2) DC techniques; (3) AC techniques. The aims and fields of application are discussed, reporting several examples of specific applications in the field of cultural heritage.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : D. Neff
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091234

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

This chapter introduces the techniques used when investigating corrosion layers formed on cultural heritage artefacts. Various multiscale analysis methods, from macroscopic to nanoscopic scales, are presented. Information on the morphology, the elementary composition and the crystalline structure that each method allows for determining the constituents of the corrosion layers is examined, as well as their limits in terms of set-up, spatial and detection resolution. This chapter discusses the characteristics of the scientific tools that can be used to understand corrosion phenomena, by taking into account the major parameters responsible for alteration mechanisms.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : E. Angelini
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091319

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

This chapter deals with the description of suitable and innovative solutions devoted to preserve metallic artefacts in their original contexts, underwater cultural heritage sites of archaeological and historical interest, as well as with the analysis of the degradation processes of ferrous and non-ferrous artefacts induced by contact with an aggressive environment such as sea water. The chapter also provides an overview of the most common conservation strategies applied to recovered artefacts.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : D. Watkinson
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091210

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

Relationships between conservation and corrosion scientists are assessed and similarities, differences and synergies identified. Corrosion control as a preservation option for heritage metals is advocated as being cost-effective and pragmatic. This will require generation of data to develop predictive conservation and estimation of object lifespan as a function of their intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Methods for quantitative determination of corrosion rates of chloride infested heritage iron and techniques for scaling to heritage value are discussed. The iron hull of the ss Great Britain and an AHRC/EPSRC Heritage Science Research Programme at Cardiff University are used to illustrate the rationale behind using corrosion control in heritage.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : H. Matthiesen
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091364

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

Oxygen is a key factor in corrosion and decay of artefacts from our cultural heritage. The measurement of oxygen concentrations and quantification of oxygen consumption is therefore extremely useful in both corrosion and conservation science. This chapter focuses on two aspects of oxygen monitoring: first, measurement of oxygen consumption of cultural heritage artefacts to evaluate their corrosion rate and the efficiency of conservation treatments, and second, measurement of oxygen concentration in the burial environment to evaluate the preservation conditions and understand the formation of different corrosion products in situ. The chapter includes a short description of equipment for oxygen measurement, and gives some examples of its use for monitoring purposes.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : L.M. Abrantes
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091425

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

This chapter describes the recent advances in corrosion protection afforded by the use of ultra-thin organic films such as polymer films and self-assembled monolayers. Emphasis is given to the metal surface modification by self-assembled monolayers of carboxylic acids due to their properties and ability to protect metallic artefacts.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : J. Tidblad
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091227

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

This chapter focuses primarily on the common environmental aspects of atmospheric metal corrosion. The effects of climate and pollution on corrosion are reviewed across various timescales, from damage over millennia to the present situation, including short descriptions of the indoor environment and recent developments in international standardisation. The chapter concludes with two sections on future trends in air pollution and climate change.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : S. Grassini
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091357

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful tool in developing the most appropriate methodology for ensuring long-lasting artefact preservation. EIS consists in the measurement of amplitude and phase of the surface impedance of coated metallic objects at different frequencies in order to highlight either the protective effectiveness of a coating or the stability of a corrosion product layer grown onto the metallic surface. Two in-situ EIS measuring campaigns are described together with the description of the portable instrument and the measuring probes specifically designed and developed for cultural heritage applications.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : M. Abdel Harith
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091258

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

In the present chapter laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is introduced as a powerful spectrochemical analytical technique that can be exploited to characterize corroded artifacts. Scientific and technological aspects of LIBS are briefly presented. LIBS does not need sample preparation, it is nondestructive and it can be used for in-situ measurements. Examples of LIBS applications that can help archaeologists in conservation and restoration of metallic artifacts are given. We demonstrated the use of LIBS in analysis of corroded metal threads, depth profiling of copper-based decorative artefact, analysis of corroded Punic coins, and LIBS and XRF analysis of Roman silver denarii.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : N.G. González
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091395

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

This chapter reviews and summarises the results of experiments using a new technique known as ‘subcritical’ for the stabilisation of archaeological iron. Five case studies are presented that illustrate the capacity of this technique to rapidly remove entrapped chloride ions from unstable metal with minimal observable changes to the objects’ integrity. This overview focuses on the effectiveness of this treatment from a conservation and preservation perspective. The benefits and current limitations of the technique are identified, as well as important areas where there is a need for further research.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : V. Argyropoulos
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091418

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

This chapter discusses the importance of using standards in conservation methodology and practice for cultural heritage (CH) metals. The past general trend in the field is the use of metal industry standards. The chapter surveys the relevant scientific publications, and concludes that conservation researchers use a variety of these standards adopted by different organisations. As a result, it can be difficult to compare scientific data for CH metal studies carried out by different laboratories. The chapter discusses the necessity to draft new standards for metals specific for CH by examining how three independent researchers had different findings when testing the same coating. The role of CEN/TC 346 ‘Conservation of Cultural Heritage’ is also discussed.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : D.A. Scott
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091241

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

Metallographic investigations may be an essential component in the search for authenticity and fabrication technology. Assessing how an artefact is made may involve metallographic examination, usually entailing the removal of a small sample from the object concerned. Examples of the use of metallography are discussed with reference to copper alloys, high-tin bronzes, Chinese bronze mirrors, copper plaques, iron and steels, and plated or coated metals, such as depletion gilded surfaces or those covered with gold foil or other metals. The different types of features which metallography can reveal concerning ancient metallic structures are briefly discussed with several colour photomicrographs which illustrate the features described in this chapter. The importance of metallography as one component of the scientific tools to aid in the determination of authenticity of ancient metallic artefacts is stressed, and an example given of old electrotypes from the Victoria and Albert Museum. Important literature references are provided to direct the reader to more detailed studies on the subject.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Book

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts


  • Author : P. Vassiliou
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128091302

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts Excerpt :

The use of silver in ancient civilisations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Ionia, Greece, Rome and China is presented. Principles of silver corrosion in different environments containing humidity, oxygen, carbonates, sulphur, chlorides, peroxides, ozone and UV, and the morphology of the corrosion layers are described. Cleaning, anti-tarnishing and protection methods are explained. Inhibitor hexadecanethiol (HDT) and a composite coating of Paraloid B-72 containing 2% nano-alumina pigment are tested on silver specimens with tarnished and corroded surfaces and found to be protective when exposed in sulphides and chloride environments in the laboratory, satisfying aesthetic and reversibility criteria.