Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning  Vol  1 Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Vol 1


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2015-11-12
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 894
  • ISBN 10 : 9780323312707

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Vol 1 Book Description :

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specification in a multitude of industries such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. Provides best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or those who handle the consequences of surface contamination Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries as spearheaded by the semiconductor industry Presents state-of-the-art survey information on precision cleaning and characterization methods as written by a team of world-class experts in the field

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning   Vol 2 Book
Score: 4
From 1 Ratings

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Vol 2


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2009-10-02
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN 10 : 1437778313

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Vol 2 Book Description :

Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. Topics covered include: A systems analysis approach to contamination control Physical factors that influence the behavior of particle deposition in enclosures An overview of current yield models and description of advanced models Types of strippable coatings, their properties and applications of these coatings for removal of surface contaminants In-depth coverage of ultrasonic cleaning Contamination and cleaning issues at the nanoscale Experimental results illustrating the impact of model parameters on the removal of particle contamination The expert contributions in this book provide a valuable source of information on the current status and recent developments in surface contamination and cleaning. The book will be of value to industry, government and academic personnel involved in research and development, manufacturing, process and quality control, and procurement specifications across sectors including microelectronics, aerospace, optics, xerography and joining (adhesive bonding). ABOUT THE EDITORS Rajiv Kohli is a leading expert with The Aerospace Corporation in contaminant particle behavior, surface cleaning, and contamination control. At the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, he provides technical support for contamination control related to ground-based and manned spaceflight hardware for the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station, and the new Constellation Program that is designed to meet the United States Vision for Space Exploration. Kashmiri Lal "Kash" Mittal was associated with IBM from 1972 to 1994. Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of surface contamination and cleaning, and in adhesion science and technology. He is the Edito

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning  Applications of Cleaning Techniques Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Applications of Cleaning Techniques


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2018-11-27
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 830
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128155783

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Applications of Cleaning Techniques Book Description :

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Applications of Cleaning Techniques, Volume Eleven, part of the Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning series, provides a guide to recent advances in the application of cleaning techniques for the removal of surface contamination in various industries, such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. The material in this new edition compiles cleaning applications into one easy reference that has been fully updated to incorporate new applications and techniques. Taken as a whole, the series forms a unique reference for professionals and academics working in the area of surface contamination and cleaning. Presents the latest reviewed technical information on precision cleaning applications as written by established experts in the field Provides a single source on the applications of innovative precision cleaning techniques for a wide variety of industries Serves as a guide to the selection of precision cleaning techniques for specific applications

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning  Volume 12 Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 12


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2019-06-08
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 276
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128162958

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 12 Book Description :

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Methods for Assessment and Verification of Cleanliness of Surfaces and Characterization of Surface Contaminants, Volume Twelve, the latest release in the Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning series, provides best practices on determining surface cleanliness. Chapters include an introduction to the nature and size of particles, a discussion of cleanliness levels, detailed coverage of measurement methods, characterization methods and analytical methods for evaluating surfaces, and an overview of analysis methods for various contaminants. As a whole, the series creates a unique and comprehensive knowledge base for those in research and development in a variety of industries. Manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification professionals in the aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography industries will find this book to be very helpful. In addition, researchers in an academic setting will also find these volumes excellent source books. Includes an extensive listing, with a description of available methods for the assessment of surface cleanliness Provides a single source of information on methods for verification of surface cleanliness Serves as a guide to the selection, assessment and verification of methods for specific applications

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning  Volume 7 Book
Score: 5
From 1 Ratings

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 7


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2014-11-18
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 206
  • ISBN 10 : 9780323311458

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 7 Book Description :

As device sizes in the semiconductor industries are shrinking, they become more vulnerable to smaller contaminant particles, and most conventional cleaning techniques employed in the industry are not as effective at smaller scales. The book series Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning as a whole provides an excellent source of information on these alternative cleaning techniques as well as methods for characterization and validation of surface contamination. Each volume has a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. The chapters in this Volume address the sources of surface contaminants and various methods for their collection and characterization, as well as methods for cleanliness validation. Regulatory aspects of cleaning are also covered. The collection of topics in this book is unique and complements other volumes in this series. Edited by the leading experts in small-scale particle surface contamination, cleaning and cleaning control, these books will be an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. Provides a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries, spearheaded by the semiconductor industry and others Includes new regulatory aspects

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2012-11-05
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN 10 : 9781437778816

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Book Description :

In this series Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. The expert contributions in this volume cover important fundamental aspects of surface contamination that are key to understanding the behavior of specific types of contaminants. This understanding is essential to develop preventative and mitigation methods for contamination control. The coverage complements the treatment of surface contamination in vol.1, Fundamental and Applied Aspects. This volume covers: Sources and Generation of Particles; Manipulation Techniques for Particles on Surfaces; Particle Deposition and Rebound; Particle Behavior in Liquid Systems; Biological and Metallic Contamination; and includes a comprehensive list of current standards and resources. Feature: Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Benefit: One-stop series where a wide range of readers will be sure to find a solution to their cleaning problem, saving the time involved in consulting a range of disparate sources. Feature: Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Benefit: Provides an authoritative resource Feature: Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art. Benefit: Can be relied on to provide insight, clarity and real expertise on up-to-the-minute innovations. Feature: Case studies included Benefit: Case studies help the reader see theory applied to the solution of real-world practical cleaning and contamination problems.

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning  Methods for Surface Cleaning Book
Score: 5
From 1 Ratings

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Methods for Surface Cleaning


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2016-11-04
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 212
  • ISBN 10 : 9780323431729

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Methods for Surface Cleaning Book Description :

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Methods for Surface Cleaning, Volume 9, part of the Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning series provide a state-of-the-art guide to the current knowledge on the behavior of film-type and particulate surface contaminants and their associated cleaning methods. This newest volume in the series discusses methods of surface cleaning of contaminants and the resources that are needed to deal with them. Taken as a whole, the series forms a unique reference for professionals and academics working in the area of surface contamination and cleaning. A strong theme running through the series is that of surface contamination and cleaning at the micro and nano scales. Provides a comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface cleaning Written by established experts in the surface cleaning field, presenting an authoritative resource Contains a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art, including case studies to enhance the learning process

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning  Volume 7 Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 7


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2018-11-13
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 206
  • ISBN 10 : 0128103302

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 7 Book Description :

As device sizes in the semiconductor industries are shrinking, they become more vulnerable to smaller contaminant particles, and most conventional cleaning techniques employed in the industry are not as effective at smaller scales. The book series Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning as a whole provides an excellent source of information on these alternative cleaning techniques as well as methods for characterization and validation of surface contamination. Each volume has a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. The chapters in this Volume address the sources of surface contaminants and various methods for their collection and characterization, as well as methods for cleanliness validation. Regulatory aspects of cleaning are also covered. The collection of topics in this book is unique and complements other volumes in this series. Edited by the leading experts in small-scale particle surface contamination, cleaning and cleaning control, these books will be an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. Provides a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries, spearheaded by the semiconductor industry and others Includes new regulatory aspects

Surface Contamination and Cleaning Book

Surface Contamination and Cleaning


  • Author : Kash L. Mittal
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2003-03-01
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 364
  • ISBN 10 : 9789047403289

GET BOOK
Surface Contamination and Cleaning Book Description :

This volume documents the proceedings of the International Symposium on Surface Contamination and Cleaning, held in Newark, New Jersey, May 23-25, 2001. Because of the importance of this topic in many technological areas, tremendous efforts have been devoted to devise novel and more efficient ways to monitor, analyse and characterize contamination

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning  Volume 3 Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 3


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2011-03-25
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 258
  • ISBN 10 : 1437778860

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 3 Book Description :

The contributions in this volume cover methods for removal of particle contaminants on surfaces. Several of these methods are well established and have been employed in industrial applications for a long time. However, the ever- higher demand for removal of smaller particles on newer substrate materials is driving continuous development of the established cleaning methods and alternative innovative methods for particle removal. This book provides information on the latest developments in this topic area. Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art Case studies included

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning  Volume 4 Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 4


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2011-09-26
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN 10 : 9781437778847

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 4 Book Description :

In this series Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. The expert contributions in this volume cover important fundamental aspects of surface contamination that are key to understanding the behavior of specific types of contaminants. This understanding is essential to develop preventative and mitigation methods for contamination control. The coverage complements the treatment of surface contamination in vol.1, Fundamental and Applied Aspects. This volume covers: Sources and Generation of Particles; Manipulation Techniques for Particles on Surfaces; Particle Deposition and Rebound; Particle Behavior in Liquid Systems; Biological and Metallic Contamination; and includes a comprehensive list of current standards and resources. Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art Case studies included

Surface Contamination Book

Surface Contamination


  • Author : K. L. Mittal
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date : 1979
  • Genre: Surface chemistry
  • Pages : 556
  • ISBN 10 : 1468435078

GET BOOK
Surface Contamination Book Description :

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning   Vol 6 Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Vol 6


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2013-05-27
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN 10 : 9781437778809

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Vol 6 Book Description :

In this series Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. The expert contributions in this volume cover important fundamental aspects of surface contamination that are key to understanding the behavior of specific types of contaminants. This understanding is essential to develop preventative and mitigation methods for contamination control. The coverage complements the treatment of surface contamination in vol.1, Fundamental and Applied Aspects. This volume covers: Sources and Generation of Particles; Manipulation Techniques for Particles on Surfaces; Particle Deposition and Rebound; Particle Behavior in Liquid Systems; Biological and Metallic Contamination; and includes a comprehensive list of current standards and resources. Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art Case studies included

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning  Types of Contamination and Contamination Resources Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Types of Contamination and Contamination Resources


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2016-12-01
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 194
  • ISBN 10 : 0323431585

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Types of Contamination and Contamination Resources Book Description :

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume Ten, provides a state-of-the-art guide to the current knowledge on the behavior of film-type and particulate surface contaminants and their cleaning methods. This newest volume in the series discusses mechanisms of particle adhesion, particle behavior in liquid systems, and metallic contamination and its impact. In addition, the book includes a discussion of the types of contaminants, with resources to deal with them and information on environmental issues related to surface contamination and cleaning. Taken as a whole, the series forms a unique reference for professionals and academics working in the area of surface contamination and cleaning that also includes information on cleaning at the micro and nano scales. Written by established experts in the contamination field that provide an authoritative resource Presents a comprehensive review of new trends in contaminants and resources for dealing with those contaminants Contains detailed case studies to illustrate various scenarios

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning   Vol 2 Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Vol 2


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2009-11-20
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN 10 : 1437778305

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Vol 2 Book Description :

Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. Topics covered include: A systems analysis approach to contamination control Physical factors that influence the behavior of particle deposition in enclosures An overview of current yield models and description of advanced models Types of strippable coatings, their properties and applications of these coatings for removal of surface contaminants In-depth coverage of ultrasonic cleaning Contamination and cleaning issues at the nanoscale Experimental results illustrating the impact of model parameters on the removal of particle contamination The expert contributions in this book provide a valuable source of information on the current status and recent developments in surface contamination and cleaning. The book will be of value to industry, government and academic personnel involved in research and development, manufacturing, process and quality control, and procurement specifications across sectors including microelectronics, aerospace, optics, xerography and joining (adhesive bonding). ABOUT THE EDITORS Rajiv Kohli is a leading expert with The Aerospace Corporation in contaminant particle behavior, surface cleaning, and contamination control. At the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, he provides technical support for contamination control related to ground-based and manned spaceflight hardware for the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station, and the new Constellation Program that is designed to meet the United States Vision for Space Exploration. Kashmiri Lal "Kash" Mittal was associated with IBM from 1972 to 1994. Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of surface contamination and cleaning, and in adhesion science and technology. He is the Edito

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning  Volume 8 Book

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 8


  • Author : Rajiv Kohli
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2015-06-03
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 234
  • ISBN 10 : 9780323312714

GET BOOK
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Volume 8 Book Description :

As device sizes in the semiconductor industries shrink, devices become more vulnerable to smaller contaminant particles, and most conventional cleaning techniques employed in the industry are not effective at smaller scales. The book series Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning as a whole provides an excellent source of information on these alternative cleaning techniques as well as methods for characterization and validation of surface contamination. Each volume has a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. Several novel wet and dry surface cleaning methods are addressed in this Volume. Many of these methods have not been reviewed previously, or the previous reviews are dated. These methods are finding increasing commercial application and the information in this book will be of high value to the reader. Edited by the leading experts in small-scale particle surface contamination, cleaning and cleaning control these books will be an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. Provides a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries, spearheaded by the semiconductor industry and others Covers novel wet and dry surface cleaning methods of increasing commercial importance

Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology  2nd Edition Book

Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology 2nd Edition


  • Author : Karen Reinhardt
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2008-12-10
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 660
  • ISBN 10 : 9780815517733

GET BOOK
Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology 2nd Edition Book Description :

The second Edition of the Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology is intended to provide knowledge of wet, plasma, and other surface conditioning techniques used to manufacture integrated circuits. The integration of the clean processes into the device manufacturing flow will be presented with respect to other manufacturing steps such as thermal, implant, etching, and photolithography processes. The Handbook discusses both wet and plasma-based cleaning technologies that are used for removing contamination, particles, residue, and photoresist from wafer surfaces. Both the process and the equipment are covered. A review of the current cleaning technologies is included. Also, advanced cleaning technologies that are under investigation for next generation processing are covered; including supercritical fluid, laser, and cryoaerosol cleaning techniques. Additionally theoretical aspects of the cleaning technologies and how these processes affect the wafer is discussed such as device damage and surface roughening will be discussed. The analysis of the wafers surface is outlined. A discussion of the new materials and the changes required for the surface conditioning process used for manufacturing is also included. Focused on silicon wafer cleaning techniques including wet, plasma, and other surface conditioning techniques used to manufacture integrated circuits As this book covers the major technologies for removing contaminants, it is a reliable reference for anyone that manufactures integrated circuits, or supplies the semiconductor and microelectronics industries Covers processes and equipment, as well as new materials and changes required for the surface conditioning process Editors are two of the top names in the field and are both extensively published Discusses next generation processing techniques including supercritical fluid, laser, and cryoaerosol

Fundamentals of Contamination Control Book

Fundamentals of Contamination Control


  • Author : Alan C. Tribble
  • Publisher : SPIE Press
  • Release Date : 2000
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 176
  • ISBN 10 : 0819438448

GET BOOK
Fundamentals of Contamination Control Book Description :

This Tutorial Text provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject of contamination control, with specific applications to the aerospace industry. The author draws upon his many years as a practicing contamination control engineer, researcher, and teacher. The book examines methods to quantify the cleanliness level required by various contamination-sensitive surfaces and to predict the end-of-life contamination level for those surfaces, and it identifies contamination control techniques required to ensure mission success.

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination Book

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination


  • Author : Maria C. Hernandez Soriano
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2014-03-26
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 920
  • ISBN 10 : 9789535112358

GET BOOK
Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination Book Description :

Soil is an irreplaceable resource that sustains life on the planet, challenged by food and energy demands of an increasing population. Therefore, soil contamination constitutes a critical issue to be addressed if we are to secure the life quality of present and future generations. Integrated efforts from researchers and policy makers are required to develop sound risk assessment procedures, remediation strategies and sustainable soil management policies. Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination provides a wide depiction of current research in soil contamination and risk assessment, encompassing reviews and case studies on soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants. The book introduces several innovative approaches for soil remediation and risk assessment, including advances in phytoremediation and implementation of metabolomics in soil sciences.

Contaminants in the Subsurface Book

Contaminants in the Subsurface


  • Author : National Research Council
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2005-04-23
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 370
  • ISBN 10 : 9780309094474

GET BOOK
Contaminants in the Subsurface Book Description :

At hundreds of thousands of commercial, industrial, and military sites across the country, subsurface materials including groundwater are contaminated with chemical waste. The last decade has seen growing interest in using aggressive source remediation technologies to remove contaminants from the subsurface, but there is limited understanding of (1) the effectiveness of these technologies and (2) the overall effect of mass removal on groundwater quality. This report reviews the suite of technologies available for source remediation and their ability to reach a variety of cleanup goals, from meeting regulatory standards for groundwater to reducing costs. The report proposes elements of a protocol for accomplishing source remediation that should enable project managers to decide whether and how to pursue source remediation at their sites.