DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease Book

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease


  • Author : Michel Neidhart
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2015-08-11
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 552
  • ISBN 10 : 9780127999203

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DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease Excerpt :

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease reviews the possibilities of methyl-group-based epigenetic biomarkers of major diseases, tailored epigenetic therapies, and the future uses of high-throughput methylome technologies. This volume includes many pertinent advances in disease-bearing research, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity. DNA methylation is also discussed as a plasma and serum test for non-invasive screening, diagnostic and prognostic tests, as compared to biopsy-driven gene expression analysis, factors which have led to the use of DNA methylation as a potential tool for determining cancer risk, and diagnosis between benign and malignant disease. Therapies are at the heart of this volume and the possibilities of DNA demethylation. In cancer, unlike genetic mutations, DNA methylation and histone modifications are reversible and thus have shown great potential in the race for effective treatments. In addition, the authors present the importance of high-throughput methylome analysis, not only in cancer, but also in non-neoplastic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Discusses breaking biomarker research in major disease families of current health concern and research interest, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity Summarizes advances not only relevant to cancer, but also in non-neoplastic disease, currently an emerging field Describes wholly new concepts, including the linking of metabolic pathways with epigenetics Provides translational researchers with the knowledge of both basic research and clinic applications of DNA methylation in human diseases

Network Medicine Book

Network Medicine


  • Author : Joseph Loscalzo
  • Publisher : Harvard University Press
  • Release Date : 2017-02-01
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 500
  • ISBN 10 : 9780674545526

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Network Medicine Excerpt :

Big data, genomics, and quantitative approaches to network-based analysis are combining to advance the frontiers of medicine as never before. With contributions from leading experts, Network Medicine introduces this rapidly evolving field of research, which promises to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases.

Epigenetics in Human Disease Book

Epigenetics in Human Disease


  • Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2012-07-26
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 592
  • ISBN 10 : 9780123884169

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Epigenetics in Human Disease Excerpt :

Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields of sciences, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. The goal of this volume is to highlight those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic factors such as cancer, autoimmune disorders and aging as well as those that are yielding exciting breakthroughs in epigenetics such as diabetes, neurobiological disorders and cardiovascular disease. Where applicable, attempts are made to not only detail the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases, but also novel epigenetic approaches to the treatment of these diseases. Chapters are also presented on human imprinting disorders, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and gynecological and reproductive diseases. Since epigenetics plays a major role in the aging process, advances in the epigenetics of aging are highly relevant to many age-related human diseases. Therefore, this volume closes with chapters on aging epigenetics and breakthroughs that have been made to delay the aging process through epigenetic approaches. With its translational focus, this book will serve as valuable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike. Comprehensive coverage of fundamental and emergent science and clinical usage Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and their treatments Evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs

Epigenetics and Complex Traits Book

Epigenetics and Complex Traits


  • Author : Anna K. Naumova
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-09-17
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 341
  • ISBN 10 : 9781461480785

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Epigenetics and Complex Traits Excerpt :

This book will provide an overview of basic epigenetic phenomena; interaction between epigenetic and genetic factors; and the influence of epigenetic factors on inheritance. Epigenetic states may contribute to the penetrance of genetic polymorphisms or mutations and thereby modify inheritance patterns. This may result in non‐Mendelian inheritance of genetic traits such as observed in common human disease. The relationship between epigenetics and genetics, however, has not been comprehensively summarized yet. The topic is being more and more appreciated lately due to considerable advances in genomic and epigenomic approaches to study the origins of human disease. The editors will focus not only on describing epigenetic characteristics, mechanisms and results, but also on how considerations of epigenetics can alter interpretation and analysis of risks for complex traits. This book will be a resource for those who have been working in human genetics or analysis of human genetic data and are studying the impact of epigenetics on inheritance. An overview will be given of the impacts of inter‐individual variation in epigenetic states from major changes (errors in genomic imprinting) that cause congenital developmental defects to subtle changes and their impact on complex traits. The editors will discuss the relationship between epigenetic changes and genetic changes in human disease. Several chapters will also focus on statistical analysis of epigenetics effects, either in human disease genetic studies, or in population genetics. ​

Pathobiology of Human Disease Book
Score: 5
From 2 Ratings

Pathobiology of Human Disease


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2014-08-01
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 5000
  • ISBN 10 : 9780123864574

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Pathobiology of Human Disease Excerpt :

Pathobiology of Human Disease bridges traditional morphologic and clinical pathology, molecular pathology, and the underlying basic science fields of cell biology, genetics, and molecular biology, which have opened up a new era of research in pathology and underlie the molecular basis of human disease. The work spans more than 48 different biological and medical fields, in five basic sections: Human Organ Systems Molecular Pathology/Basic Mechanisms of Diseases Animal Models/Other Model Systems Experimental Pathology Clinical Pathology Each article provides a comprehensive overview of the selected topic to inform a broad spectrum of readers from research professionals to advanced undergraduate students. Reviews quantitative advances in the imaging and molecular analysis of human tissue, new microarray technologies for analysis of genetic and chromosomal alterations in normal and diseased cells and tissues, and new transgenic models of human disease using conditional, tissue-specific gene targeting Articles link through to relevant virtual microscopy slides, illustrating side-by-side presentation of "Normal" and "Disease" anatomy and histology images Fully-annotated with many supplementary full color images, graphs, tables, and video files linked to data sets and to live references, enabling researchers to delve deeper and visualize solutions

Epigenetic Biomarkers and Diagnostics Book

Epigenetic Biomarkers and Diagnostics


  • Author : José Luis García-Giménez
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2015-12-07
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 696
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128019214

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Epigenetic Biomarkers and Diagnostics Excerpt :

Epigenetic Biomarkers and Diagnostics comprises 31 chapters contributed by leading active researchers in basic and clinical epigenetics. The book begins with the basis of epigenetic mechanisms and descriptions of epigenetic biomarkers that can be used in clinical diagnostics and prognostics. It goes on to discuss classical methods and next generation sequencing-based technologies to discover and analyze epigenetic biomarkers. The book concludes with an account of DNA methylation, post-translational modifications and noncoding RNAs as the most promising biomarkers for cancer (i.e. breast, lung, colon, etc.), metabolic disorders (i.e. diabetes and obesity), autoimmune diseases, infertility, allergy, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders. The book describes the challenging aspects of research in epigenetics, and current findings regarding new epigenetic elements and modifiers, providing guidance for researchers interested in the most advanced technologies and tested biomarkers to be used in the clinical diagnosis or prognosis of disease. Focuses on recent progress in several areas of epigenetics, general concepts regarding epigenetics, and the future prospects of this discipline in clinical diagnostics and prognostics Describes the importance of the quality of samples and clinical associated data, and also the ethical issues for epigenetic diagnostics Discusses the advances in epigenomics technologies, including next-generation sequencing based tools and applications Expounds on the utility of epigenetic biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of several diseases, highlighting the study of these biomarkers in cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, infertility, and infectious diseases Includes a special section that discusses the relevance of biobanks in the maintenance of high quality biosamples and clinical-associated data, and the relevance of the ethical aspects in epigenetic studies

Beyond Our Genes Book

Beyond Our Genes


  • Author : Raffaele Teperino
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2020-01-24
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 266
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030352134

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Beyond Our Genes Excerpt :

The genotype/phenotype dichotomy is being slowly replaced by a more complex relationship whereby the majority of phenotypes arise from interactions between one’s genotype and the environment in which one lives. Interestingly, it seems that not only our lives, but also our ancestors’ lives, determine how we look. This newly recognized form of inheritance is known as (epi)genetic, as it involves an additional layer of information on top of the one encoded by the genes. Its discovery has constituted one of the biggest paradigm shifts in biology in recent years. Understanding epigenetic factors may help explain the pathogenesis of several complex human diseases (such as diabetes, obesity and cancer) and provide alternative paths for disease prevention, management and therapy. This book introduces the reader to the importance of the environment for our own health and the health of our descendants, sheds light on the current knowledge on epigenetic inheritance and opens a window to future developments in the field.

Epigenetic Approaches in Drug Discovery  Development and Treatment Book

Epigenetic Approaches in Drug Discovery Development and Treatment


  • Author : Shibashish Giri
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2020-08-07
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889639328

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Epigenetic Approaches in Drug Discovery Development and Treatment Excerpt :

Establishment of a normal phenotype involves dynamic epigenetic regulation of gene expression that when affected contributes to human diseases. On a molecular level, epigenetic regulation is marked by specific covalent modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, PARylation and ubiquitylation) of DNA and its associated histones. Studies also suggest the influence of such epigenetic modifications on non-coding RNA expression implicated in normal and diseased phenotypes. Epigenetic control of genetic expression is a reversible process essential for normal development and function of an organism. Alteration of epigenetic regulation leads to various disease forms such as cancer, diabetes, inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders. Assessing these alterations provides a deeper insight into the changes induced in the genome, which is often informative for identifying disease subtypes or developing suitable treatments. Therefore, epigenetics proves to be a key area of clinical investigation in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of complex diseases. Genetic mutations, environmental stress, pathogens and drugs of abuse are some of the predominant factors that induce and impact changes on chromatin, which directly dictate a diseased phenotype. It is essential to consider the interaction between genetic and epigenetic factors to understand the molecular mechanisms of complex human diseases for safer and efficient drug development. Furthermore, genetic variation in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) genes is insufficient to account for interindividual variability of drug response. Therefore, current efforts aim to identify epigenetic components of ADME gene regulation, which include phase-I and phase-II enzymes, uptake transporters, efflux transporters and nuclear receptors involved in regulation of ADME genes. Monitoring circulatory epigenetic biomarkers in liquid biopsies (blood, saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid) of disea

Nutritional Genomics Book

Nutritional Genomics


  • Author : Wayne R. Bidlack
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2011-12-05
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN 10 : 9781439844526

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Nutritional Genomics Excerpt :

The notion of matching diet with an individual’s genetic makeup is transforming the way the public views nutrition as a means of managing health and preventing disease. To fulfill the promise of nutritional genomics, researchers are beginning to reconcile the diverse properties of dietary factors with our current knowledge of genome structure and gene function. What is emerging is a complex system of interactions that make the human genome exquisitely sensitive to our nutritional environment. Nutritional Genomics: The Impact of Dietary Regulation of Gene Function on Human Disease provides an integrated view of how genomic and epigenetic processes modulate the impact of dietary factors on health. Written as a resource for researchers, nutrition educators, and policy makers, this book contains the latest scientific findings on the mechanisms of action underlying diet-genome interactions. It presents a unique perspective on the fundamentals of nutritional genomics from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Contributing authors introduce the important areas of cell signaling and transduction, the intricate regulation of gene expression, and alteration of gene-linked chronic diseases, such as obesity-induced inflammation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The authors detail significant areas of interest within nutritional genomics—including plant-based foods as epigenetic modifiers of gene function and the effects of bioactive phytochemicals on inherited genotype and expressed phenotypes. They also discuss the role of vitamin D in various cancer risks and the gastrointestinal tract as a defense system. Given the key role played by agriculture and the food industry to produce foods to meet personalized health needs, the book also addresses agricultural breeding efforts to enhance nutritional value and the use of technology to increase bioactive ingredients in the food supply. The final chapters discuss manuf

Epigenetic Epidemiology Book

Epigenetic Epidemiology


  • Author : Karin B. Michels
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-01-02
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN 10 : 9789400724952

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Epigenetic Epidemiology Excerpt :

The exploding field of epigenetics is challenging the dogma of traditional Mendelian inheritance. Epigenetics plays an important role in shaping who we are and contributes to our prospects of health and disease. While early epigenetic research focused on plant and animal models and in vitro experiments, population-based epidemiologic studies increasingly incorporate epigenetic components. The relevance of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, genomic imprinting, and histone modification for disease causation has yet to be fully explored. This book covers the basic concepts of epigenetic epidemiology, discusses challenges in study design, analysis, and interpretation, epigenetic laboratory techniques, the influence of of age and environmental factors on shaping the epigenome, the role of epigenetics in the developmental origins hypothesis, and provides the state of the art on the epigenetic epidemiology of various health conditions including childhood syndromes, cancer, infectious diseases, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. With contributions from: Peter Jones, Jean-Pierre Issa, Gavin Kelsey, Robert Waterland, and many other experts in epigenetics!

Prognostic Epigenetics Book

Prognostic Epigenetics


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-11-01
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 442
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128142608

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Prognostic Epigenetics Excerpt :

This volume provides comprehensive information on how mapping an individual’s epigenome can be medically relevant and holds the potential to improve preventive medicine and precision therapeutics at an early-stage (prior to disease onset). In order to advance clinical adoption of the recently developed epigenetic approaches, it is necessary for translational scientists, clinicians, and students to gain a better understanding about epigenetic mechanisms that are associated with a particular disorder; and to be able to effectively identify biomarkers that can be applied in drug development and for better diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. Prognostic Epigenetics is the most-inclusive volume to-date specifically dedicated to epigenetic markers that have been developed for prognosis of diseases, recent advances in this field, the clinical implementation of this research, and the future outlook. Compiles all known information on prognostic epigenetics and its role in preventive medicine and drug discovery Covers the basic functionality of epigenetic mechanisms involved in early disease prognosis and diagnosis, and provides tools for the identification and development of these biomarkers for a wide range of diseases Enables clinicians, researchers, and pharmacologists to improve preventive medicine and precision therapeutics throughout a person’s lifetime Features chapter contributions from leading international researchers

Between the Lines of Genetic Code Book

Between the Lines of Genetic Code


  • Author : Leonid Padyukov
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2013-09-28
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 232
  • ISBN 10 : 9780123973023

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Between the Lines of Genetic Code Excerpt :

Between the Lines of Genetic Code lays out methodologies and tools for the measurement and evaluation of gene-gene and gene-environment studies and gives perspective on the future of this discipline. The book begins by defining terms for interaction studies, describing methodologies, and critically assessing the viability of current study designs and the possibilities for integrating designs. It then provides recent applications data with case studies in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myositis and other complex human diseases. Last, it examines current studies and directions for future applications in patient care. Recent multivariate studies show that gene-gene and gene-environment interactions can explain significant variances in inheritance that have previously been undetectable in univariate analysis. These links among genes and between genes and their environments during the development of diseases may serve as important hints for understanding pathogenic mechanisms and for developing new tools for prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of various diseases. Systematically integrates methods of defining and detecting gene interactions to provide an overview of the field Critically analyzes current methods and tools to aid researchers in integrating gene interaction studies Includes examples of current biomedical applications and presents current research expected to shape clinical research in the near future

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease Book

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease


  • Author : Randy L. Jirtle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-05-13
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 339
  • ISBN 10 : 9783642368271

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Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease Excerpt :

There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this two volume book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome. Consequently, epigenetic research promises to markedly improve our ability to diagnosis, prevent, and treat the pathological conditions of humans; however, it also introduces unique legal and ethical issues. This volume highlights the correlation between environmental factors and complex diseases, such as autism, addiction, neurological diseases, diabetes, obesity and cancer. It concludes with a chapter on legal and ethical implications of epigenetics. ​

Cancer Book

Cancer


  • Author : Michael Dean
  • Publisher : Biota Publishing
  • Release Date : 2018-12-03
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 159
  • ISBN 10 : 9781615047956

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Cancer Excerpt :

Scientists are deciphering the biology of the tumor cell at a level of detail that would have been hard to imagine just a decade or so ago. The development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and genomics technologies have allowed an understanding of the development, growth, survival, and spread of cancer cells in the body. From this information, we now have a basic blueprint or roadmap of how a single damaged cell can develop into a pre-malignant lesion, a primary tumor, and finally, a lethal tumor that may spread throughout the body and resist both medical therapy and host immune responses. In this book, we provide an overview of our current understanding of this cancer blueprint, which has been aided both by the study of familial cancer syndromes, in vitro studies of cancer cells, and animal models. Three classes of genes have emerged from these studies: tumor suppressor genes needed for normal growth control and DNA repair; oncogenes that regulate cell growth and survival, and epigenetic modifiers, enzymes that regulate the modification of DNA and the proteins that form chromatin. Each of these three classes of genes is mutated or altered at least once in virtually all malignant cancer cells. Current technologies permit the DNA sequencing of cancer exomes (coding gene sequencing), whole genomes, transcriptome (all expressed genes), and DNA methylation profiling. These studies show that all tumors have unique constellations of mutated, rearranged, amplified, and deleted genes. Single-cell sequencing further shows that there is extensive variation in individual cells in the tumor; that cancers evolve, and have many of the properties of a multi-cellular entity. Lastly, cancer cells, through mutations in epigenetic modifiers, can reprogram the genome and unlock entire developmental and gene expression pathways to adapt and survive in changing conditions. This reprogramming allows the tumor to elude the host body's defenses, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted the

The Use of DNA Methylation Assays for Epidemiological Studies Book

The Use of DNA Methylation Assays for Epidemiological Studies


  • Author : Florence Katharine Crary-Dooley
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2016
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 136961635X

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The Use of DNA Methylation Assays for Epidemiological Studies Excerpt :

DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark at the interface of genetic and environmental factors relevant to human disease. Quantitative assessments of gene specific and global DNA methylation levels are thus important tools in epidemiology research, particularly for understanding the effects of environmental exposures in complex diseases. Among the available methods of quantitative DNA methylation measurements, bisulfite sequencing is considered the gold standard, but whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) has previously been considered too costly for epidemiology studies with large sample sizes. Part of this study used the more cost effective pyrosequencing to validate differential methylation identified by WGBS in human placenta and found pyrosequencing technology useful in loci specific epigenetic biomarker analysis. However, pyrosequencing of repetitive sequences within bisulfite treated DNA has also been routinely used as a surrogate for global DNA methylation. A comparison of pyrosequencing to WGBS for accuracy and reproducibility of global methylation levels has not been previously reported. Therefore, this study also compared the global methylation levels measured from unselected WGBS sequences to pyrosequencing assays of several repeat sequences and repeat assay-matched WGBS data. Sources of variation in repetitive pyrosequencing assays were determined to include PCR amplification bias, PCR primer selection bias of targeted sequences, and inherent variability in methylation levels of repeat sequences. Low coverage, unselected WGBS showed the strongest correlation between replicates of all assays. By utilizing indexed barcode multiplexing, the cost of WGBS can be lowered significantly to improve the accuracy of global DNA methylation assessments for human studies.