DNA Modifications in the Brain Book

DNA Modifications in the Brain

  • Author : Timothy W Bredy
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2016-12-23
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 180
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128017814

DNA Modifications in the Brain Excerpt :

DNA Modifications in the Brain: Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression begins with an historical overview of the early discoveries surrounding DNA methylation in the mammalian brain and then explores the evidence supporting a role for this epigenetic mechanism in controlling gene expression programs across the lifespan in both normal and diseased states. Chapters describe new directions and technological advances, and provide an overview of what the future holds for this exciting new field. This book is ideal for medical, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, but is also a great resource for researchers who need a broad introduction to the dynamic nature of DNA that sheds light on evolving concepts of gene-environment interaction and their effects on adaptation and neuropsychiatric disease. Provides a comprehensive overview of the many facets of DNA modifications Discusses the impact of this dynamic epigenetic mechanism across brain development and lifespan at behavioral, cognitive, molecular and genetic levels Contains contributions by influential leaders in the field Edited by a Neuroscientist to further promote synthesis between epigenetics, neuroscience, and clinical relevance

Epigenetics  Brain and Behavior Book

Epigenetics Brain and Behavior

  • Author : Paolo Sassone Corsi
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-10-19
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 166
  • ISBN 10 : 9783642279133

Epigenetics Brain and Behavior Excerpt :

Recent years have seen spectacular advances in the filed of epigenetics. These have attracted the interest of researchers in many fields and evidence connecting epigentic regulation to brain functions has been accumulationg. Neurons daily convert a variety of external stimuli into rapid or long-lasting changes in gene expression. A variety of studies have centered on the molcular mechanisms implicated in epigentic control and how these may operte in concert. It will be critical to unravel how specifity is achieved. The focus of this volume is on critical epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodeling events that occur in the nervous system and on the presumed mechanisms that operate within neurons to translate them into long-lasting neuronal responses.

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide Book

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide

  • Author : Yogesh Dwivedi
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2012-06-25
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 482
  • ISBN 10 : 9781439838815

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide Excerpt :

With recent studies using genetic, epigenetic, and other molecular and neurochemical approaches, a new era has begun in understanding pathophysiology of suicide. Emerging evidence suggests that neurobiological factors are not only critical in providing potential risk factors but also provide a promising approach to develop more effective treatment and prevention strategies. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide discusses the most recent findings in suicide neurobiology. Psychological, psychosocial, and cultural factors are important in determining the risk factors for suicide; however, they offer weak prediction and can be of little clinical use. Interestingly, cognitive characteristics are different among depressed suicidal and depressed nonsuicidal subjects, and could be involved in the development of suicidal behavior. The characterization of the neurobiological basis of suicide is in delineating the risk factors associated with suicide. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide focuses on how and why these neurobiological factors are crucial in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicidal behavior and how these findings can be transformed into potential therapeutic applications.

The Epigenetics of Suicide Book

The Epigenetics of Suicide

  • Author : Benoit Labonté
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2013
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:922058836

The Epigenetics of Suicide Excerpt :

"Suicide is a problem resulting from the interaction between several factors. Among these factors, early-life adversity, characterized by child sexual and physical abuse as well as parental neglect, is one of the strongest risk factors for depression and suicidal behaviors. While it is clear that child abuse increases the risk for depression and suicide, the mechanisms mediating these effects are still unknown. Recent evidences suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in mediating the effects of early-life adversity on behavior. Early-life stress in animals has been shown to alter DNA methylation in genes regulatory regions what, in turn, has been associated with changes in gene expression and behavioral modifications. Importantly, similar changes have been reported in several genes in the human brain. However, although epigenetic modifications have been found in several genes, the extent of epigenetic changes induced by early-life adversity is still unknown and their impacts on increasing suicide risk are unclear. This thesis aims at expanding our understanding of suicide by investigating one potential mechanism by which early-life adversity may increase vulnerability to mood disorders and suicide, namely epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We first expanded our characterization of DNA methylation alterations induced by early and adult-life stress in the regulatory regions of the glucocorticoid receptor gene which is one of the most consistent alterations associated with stress, depression and suicidal behaviors. We then opted for a genome-wide characterization of DNA methylation alterations found in the brains of suicide completers with and without a history of child abuse using microarray analyses focusing on gene promoters throughout the genome. Our findings revealed several DNA methylation alterations in genes with known roles on behavioral regulation and identified several new genes and networks which may be specifically altered by early-life a

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease Book

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease

  • Author : Michel Neidhart
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2015-08-11
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 552
  • ISBN 10 : 9780127999203

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease Excerpt :

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease reviews the possibilities of methyl-group-based epigenetic biomarkers of major diseases, tailored epigenetic therapies, and the future uses of high-throughput methylome technologies. This volume includes many pertinent advances in disease-bearing research, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity. DNA methylation is also discussed as a plasma and serum test for non-invasive screening, diagnostic and prognostic tests, as compared to biopsy-driven gene expression analysis, factors which have led to the use of DNA methylation as a potential tool for determining cancer risk, and diagnosis between benign and malignant disease. Therapies are at the heart of this volume and the possibilities of DNA demethylation. In cancer, unlike genetic mutations, DNA methylation and histone modifications are reversible and thus have shown great potential in the race for effective treatments. In addition, the authors present the importance of high-throughput methylome analysis, not only in cancer, but also in non-neoplastic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Discusses breaking biomarker research in major disease families of current health concern and research interest, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity Summarizes advances not only relevant to cancer, but also in non-neoplastic disease, currently an emerging field Describes wholly new concepts, including the linking of metabolic pathways with epigenetics Provides translational researchers with the knowledge of both basic research and clinic applications of DNA methylation in human diseases

Epigenetics and Neuroplasticity   Evidence and Debate Book

Epigenetics and Neuroplasticity Evidence and Debate

  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2014-11-05
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128010853

Epigenetics and Neuroplasticity Evidence and Debate Excerpt :

The ‘epi-(Greek for ‘over’, ‘above’)genome’, with its rich cache of highly regulated, structural modifications—including DNA methylation, histone modifications and histone variants—defines the moldings and three-dimensional structures of the genomic material inside the cell nucleus and serves, literally, as a molecular bridge linking the environment to the genetic materials in our brain cells. Due to technological and scientific advances in the field, the field of neuroepigenetics is currently one of the hottest topics in the basic and clinical neurosciences. The volume captures some of this vibrant and exciting new research, and conveys to the reader an up-to-date discussion on the role of epigenetics across the lifespan of the human brain in health and disease. Topics cover the entire lifespan of the brain, from transgenerational epigenetics to neurodevelopmental disease to disorders of the aging brain. All chapters are written with dual intent, to provide the reader with a timely update on the field, and a discussion of provocative or controversial findings in the field with the potential of great impact for future developments in the field.

Epigenetics of Aging Book

Epigenetics of Aging

  • Author : Trygve O. Tollefsbol
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2009-11-11
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 469
  • ISBN 10 : 9781441906397

Epigenetics of Aging Excerpt :

Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic processes may play a major role in both cellular and organismal aging. These epigenetic processes include not only DNA methylation and histone modifications, but also extend to many other epigenetic mediators such as the polycomb group proteins, chromosomal position effects, and noncoding RNA. The topics of this book range from fundamental changes in DNA methylation in aging to the most recent research on intervention into epigenetic modifications to modulate the aging process. The major topics of epigenetics and aging covered in this book are: 1) DNA methylation and histone modifications in aging; 2) Other epigenetic processes and aging; 3) Impact of epigenetics on aging; 4) Epigenetics of age-related diseases; 5) Epigenetic interventions and aging: and 6) Future directions in epigenetic aging research. The most studied of epigenetic processes, DNA methylation, has been associated with cellular aging and aging of organisms for many years. It is now apparent that both global and gene-specific alterations occur not only in DNA methylation during aging, but also in several histone alterations. Many epigenetic alterations can have an impact on aging processes such as stem cell aging, control of telomerase, modifications of telomeres, and epigenetic drift can impact the aging process as evident in the recent studies of aging monozygotic twins. Numerous age-related diseases are affected by epigenetic mechanisms. For example, recent studies have shown that DNA methylation is altered in Alzheimer’s disease and autoimmunity. Other prevalent diseases that have been associated with age-related epigenetic changes include cancer and diabetes. Paternal age and epigenetic changes appear to have an effect on schizophrenia and epigenetic silencing has been associated with several of the progeroid syndromes of premature aging. Moreover, the impact of dietary or drug intervention into epigenetic processes as they affect normal aging or

Epigenetic Epidemiology Book

Epigenetic Epidemiology

  • Author : Karin B. Michels
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-01-02
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN 10 : 9789400724952

Epigenetic Epidemiology Excerpt :

The exploding field of epigenetics is challenging the dogma of traditional Mendelian inheritance. Epigenetics plays an important role in shaping who we are and contributes to our prospects of health and disease. While early epigenetic research focused on plant and animal models and in vitro experiments, population-based epidemiologic studies increasingly incorporate epigenetic components. The relevance of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, genomic imprinting, and histone modification for disease causation has yet to be fully explored. This book covers the basic concepts of epigenetic epidemiology, discusses challenges in study design, analysis, and interpretation, epigenetic laboratory techniques, the influence of of age and environmental factors on shaping the epigenome, the role of epigenetics in the developmental origins hypothesis, and provides the state of the art on the epigenetic epidemiology of various health conditions including childhood syndromes, cancer, infectious diseases, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. With contributions from: Peter Jones, Jean-Pierre Issa, Gavin Kelsey, Robert Waterland, and many other experts in epigenetics!

DNA Modifications Book

DNA Modifications

  • Author : Alexey Ruzov
  • Publisher : Humana
  • Release Date : 2020-08-22
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 495
  • ISBN 10 : 1071608754

DNA Modifications Excerpt :

This book provides an overview of methods and experimental protocols that are currently used to analyze the presence and abundance of non-canonical DNA nucleotides in different biological systems. Focusing particularly on the newly discovered and less studied DNA modifications that are enzymatically produced and are likely to play specific roles in various biological processes, the volume explores chromatography- and mass spectrometry-based techniques for the detection and quantification of DNA modifications, antibody-based approaches to study their spatial distribution in different cells and tissues, and methods to analyze their genomic distribution with the help of bioinformatics tools that interrogate the corresponding datasets. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and comprehensive, DNA Modifications: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide to research scientists and PhD students in this rapidly developing discipline, and, thus, will ultimately contribute to deciphering the roles of non-canonical DNA nucleotides in different biological systems.

Brain  Behavior and Epigenetics Book

Brain Behavior and Epigenetics

  • Author : Arturas Petronis
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2011-05-19
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN 10 : 9783642174261

Brain Behavior and Epigenetics Excerpt :

Biomedical research in the first decade of the 21st century has been marked by a rapidly growing interest in epigenetics. The reasons for this are numerous, but primarily it stems from the mounting realization that research programs focused solely on DNA sequence variation, despite their breadth and depth, are unlikely to address all fundamental aspects of human biology. Some questions are evident even to non-biologists. How does a single zygote develop into a complex multicellular organism composed of dozens of different tissues and hundreds of cell types, all genetically identical but performing very different functions? Why do monozygotic twins, despite their stunning external similarities, often exhibit significant differences in personality and predisposition to disease? If environmental factors are solely the cause of such variation, why are similar differences also observed between genetically identical animals housed in a uniform environment? Over the last couple of decades, epigenetics has undergone a significant metamorphosis from an abstract developmental theory to a very dynamic and rapidly developing branch of molecular biology. This volume represents a compilation of our current understanding about the key aspects of epigenetic processes in the brain and their role in behavior. The chapters in this book bring together some of the leading researchers in the field of behavioral epigenetics. They explore many of the epigenetic processes which operate or may be operating to mediate neurobiological functions in the brain and describe how perturbations to these systems may play a key role in mediating behavior and the origin of brain diseases.

Gadd45 Stress Sensor Genes Book

Gadd45 Stress Sensor Genes

  • Author : Dan A. Liebermann
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-10-08
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 134
  • ISBN 10 : 9781461482895

Gadd45 Stress Sensor Genes Excerpt :

Emerging evidence indicates that the Gadd45 family of genes play a unique and critical role as sensors of stress, including genotoxic, physiological and oncogenic stress. The stress response Gadd45 family of genes (Gadd45a, Gadd45b & Gadd45g), discovered by Dr. Liebermann and other researchers, encode for small (18 kd) nuclear/cytoplasmic proteins). These genes are rapidly induced by a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous stress stimuli. In spite of marked similarities, Gadd45 genes are regulated differently & exhibit functional diversity. Gadd45 are implicated in cell cycle arrest, DNA demethylation & repair, apoptosis, cell survival, genomic stability, inflammation, & in response to physiological and oncogenic stress. Functions of Gadd45 genes are mediated by protein-protein interactions that modulate structure/function of other cellular proteins implicated in cell cycle regulation and the response of cells to stress; these interactions vary depending upon the biological setting including cell type, developmental stage and stress/stimulus. Protein partners include cdc2/cyclinB1, p21, the p38/JNK stress induced kinase pathways, and PCNA/histones. The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive picture of the unique global role Gadd45 genes play as stress sensors & the molecular pathways involved.

Neuroepigenomics in Aging and Disease Book

Neuroepigenomics in Aging and Disease

  • Author : Raul Delgado-Morales
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-05-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 525
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319538891

Neuroepigenomics in Aging and Disease Excerpt :

Epigenetic mechanisms (DNA modifications, histone alterations and non-coding RNAs) are crucial for transcriptional regulation and alterations of the “physiological epigenome” are increasingly associated with human diseases. During the last decade the emerging field of neuroepigenomics have started to impact tremendously in areas such learning and memory, addiction or neurodegeneration. This expert volume covers the role of epigenetic molecular mechanism in regulation of central nervous system’s function, one of the most exciting areas of contemporary molecular neuroscience. The book describes the current knowledge on the epigenetic basis of human disease covering the complete lifespan: from neurodevelopment/childhood (Rett Syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi, autism), adolescence (eating disorders, drug addiction, anxiety), adulthood (depression, schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease) and elderly (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease). The book also covers the three major players on neuroepigenomic mechanisms: histones alterations, DNA modifications and non-coding RNAs, their roles at the molecular and cellular level and the impact of their alterations on neuronal function and behavior. Finally, a special chapter on state-of-the-art technologies helps the reader not only to understand epigenetic driven changes in human cognition and diseases but also the methodology that will help to generate paradigm shifts on our understanding of brain function and the role of the neuroepigenome in human diseases.

Epigenetics in Psychiatry Book

Epigenetics in Psychiatry

  • Author : Jacob Peedicayil
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2021-08-16
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 846
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128235782

Epigenetics in Psychiatry Excerpt :

Epigenetics in Psychiatry, Second Edition covers all major areas of psychiatry in which extensive epigenetic research has been performed, fully encompassing a diverse and maturing field, including drug addiction, bipolar disorder, epidemiology, cognitive disorders, and the uses of putative epigenetic-based psychotropic drugs. Uniquely, each chapter correlates epigenetics with relevant advances across genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The book acts as a catalyst for further research in this growing area of psychiatry. This new edition has been fully revised to address recent advances in epigenetic understanding of psychiatric disorders, evoking data consortia (e.g., CommonMind, ATAC-seq), single cell analysis, and epigenome-wide association studies to empower new research. The book also examines epigenetic effects of the microbiome on psychiatric disorders, and the use of neuroimaging in studying the role of epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression. Ongoing advances in epigenetic therapy are explored in-depth. Fully revised to discuss new areas of research across neuronal stem cells, cognitive disorders, and transgenerational epigenetics in psychiatric disease Relates broad advances in psychiatric epigenetics to a modern understanding of the genome, transcriptome, and proteins Catalyzes knowledge discovery in both basic epigenetic biology and epigenetic targets for drug discovery Provides guidance in research methods and protocols, as well how to employ data from consortia, single cell analysis, and epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) Features chapter contributions from international leaders in the field

Chromatin Signaling and Neurological Disorders Book

Chromatin Signaling and Neurological Disorders

  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-05-24
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 378
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128137970

Chromatin Signaling and Neurological Disorders Excerpt :

Chromatin Signaling and Neurological Disorders, Volume Seven, explores our current understanding of how chromatin signaling regulates access to genetic information, and how their aberrant regulation can contribute to neurological disorders. Researchers, students and clinicians will not only gain a strong grounding on the relationship between chromatin signaling and neurological disorders, but they'll also discover approaches to better interpret and employ new diagnostic studies and epigenetic-based therapies. A diverse range of chapters from international experts speaks to the basis of chromatin and epigenetic signaling pathways and specific chromatin signaling factors that regulate a range of diseases. In addition to the basic science of chromatin signaling factors, each disease-specific chapter speaks to the translational or clinical significance of recent findings, along with important implications for the development of epigenetics-based therapeutics. Common themes of translational significance are also identified across disease types, as well as the future potential of chromatin signaling research. Examines specific chromatin signaling factors that regulate spinal muscular atrophy, ulbospinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Angelman syndrome, Rader-Willi syndrome, and more Contains chapter contributions from international experts who speak to the clinical significance of recent findings and the implications for the development of epigenetics-based therapeutics Provides researchers, students and clinicians with approaches to better interpret and employ new diagnostic studies for treating neurological disorders

Epigenetics Book Book

Epigenetics Book

  • Author : Roy Carroll
  • Publisher : Youcanprint
  • Release Date : 2022-01-25
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 168
  • ISBN 10 : 9791220372398

Epigenetics Book Excerpt :

You Are About To Develop An Insider Understanding Of Epigenetics, Including Their Relationship With The DNA, Environmental Factors, Human Development And Evolution; Their Role In Human Mental And Physical Health, Including Their Use In The Treating Of Different Conditions And Diseases Along With The Most Current Epigenetic Practices And Research! What started as a broad research focused on combining genetics and developmental biology during the mid-twentieth century has evolved into the field we currently refer to as epigenetics- the mechanism of gene control that can either promote or repress gene expression without altering the genetic coding of the organism. Today, we know that the environment factors and individual lifestyles can have a direct interaction with epigenetic change, which can be reflected at various stages throughout the life of an individual and even in the later generations. You've heard that a mother's exposure to pollution can affect her child's asthma susceptibility, haven't you? No? How about the argument that a child's mental fitness can be (epigenetically) influenced by his/her dad's diet? Epigenetic change, which has nothing to do with the changes to the underlying DNA sequence, does affect how cells read genes and this biological change is influenced by several factors which include environment, lifestyle and health state through a mechanisms including a popular one known as DNA methylation. But what is the relationship between the epigenetic change and physical and physiological conditions as regards to their onset and improvement? How are epigenetic modifications being used to understand our environment, society and increasing human adaptation? How exactly do epigenetic therapies work? How does DNA affect epigenetic changes? How can we exploit epigenetic mechanisms to understand life better and improve it? If you have these and other related questions, this book is for you. More precisely, you will learn: What epigenetics are and their r