Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules Book

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules


  • Author : Hsinjin Edwin Yang
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2019-06-13
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 356
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128115466

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Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules Excerpt :

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules describes the durability and reliability behavior of polymers used in Si-photovoltaic modules and systems, particularly in terms of physical aging and degradation process/mechanisms, characterization methods, accelerated exposure chamber and testing, module level testing, and service life prediction. The book compares polymeric materials to traditional materials used in solar applications, explaining the degradation pathways of the different elements of a photovoltaic module, including encapsulant, front sheet, back sheet, wires and connectors, adhesives, sealants, and more. In addition, users will find sections on the tests needed for the evaluation of polymer degradation and aging, as well as accelerated tests to aid in materials selection. As demand for photovoltaics continues to grow globally, with polymer photovoltaics offering significantly lower production costs compared to earlier approaches, this book will serve as a welcome resource on new avenues. Provides comprehensive coverage of photovoltaic polymers, from fundamental degradation mechanisms, to specific case studies of durability and materials failure Offers practical, actionable information in relation to service life prediction of photovoltaic modules and accelerated testing for materials selection Includes up-to-date information and interpretation of safety regulations and testing of photovoltaic modules and materials

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules Book

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules


  • Author : Abdulkerim Gok
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2020-01-08
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 170
  • ISBN 10 : 9781789848229

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Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules Excerpt :

Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy is expected to be the world's largest source of electricity in the future. To enhance the long-term reliability of PV modules, a thorough understanding of failure mechanisms is of vital importance. In addition, it is important to address the potential downsides to this technology. These include the hazardous chemicals needed for manufacturing solar cells, especially for thin-film technologies, and the large number of PV modules disposed of at the end of their lifecycles. This book discusses the reliability and environmental aspects of PV modules.

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules Book

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules


  • Author : Peter Hacke
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2010
  • Genre: Photovoltaic power generation
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:727264785

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Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules Excerpt :

The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Plastics Exposed to Outdoor Weathering Book

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Plastics Exposed to Outdoor Weathering


  • Author : Christopher C. White
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2017-10-13
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN 10 : 9780323497770

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Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Plastics Exposed to Outdoor Weathering Excerpt :

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Plastics Exposed to Outdoor Weathering discusses plastics and polymers and their unique applications, from sealants used in construction, to polymer composites used in planes. While these materials are important enablers for advanced technologies, exposure to weather changes the very properties of plastics that make them so useful. This book reviews current research needs and provides a consensus roadmap of the scientific barriers to validated predictive models for the response of polymers and plastics to outdoor exposure. Despite extensive efforts over the past 20-30 years, testing of polymeric materials in accelerated or natural weathering conditions and the interpretation of the weathering results still require substantial improvements. This book represents the state-of-the-art in the prediction techniques available and in development. Engineers and materials scientists working in this field will be able to use the content of this book to assess the strengths and challenges of a range of different methods and approaches. Enables engineers and scientists in a range of industries to more successfully predict the durability of polymers, paints and coatings when exposed to weather Provides the latest information to help determine the sustainability of polymeric materials Reviews the current state-of-the-art in this area and identifies research needs that are followed by more detailed discussions of specific polymers and applications

Photovoltaic Module Reliability Book

Photovoltaic Module Reliability


  • Author : John H. Wohlgemuth
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2020-01-08
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN 10 : 9781119458968

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Photovoltaic Module Reliability Excerpt :

Provides practical guidance on the latest quality assurance and accelerated stress test methods for improved long-term performance prediction of PV modules This book has been written from a historical perspective to guide readers through how the PV industry learned what the failure and degradation modes of PV modules were, how accelerated tests were developed to cause the same failures and degradations in the laboratory, and then how these tests were used as tools to guide the design and fabrication of reliable and long-life modules. Photovoltaic Module Reliability starts with a brief history of photovoltaics, discussing some of the different types of materials and devices used for commercial solar cells. It then goes on to offer chapters on: Module Failure Modes; Development of Accelerated Stress Tests; Qualification Testing; and Failure Analysis Tools. Next, it examines the use of quality management systems to manufacture PV modules. Subsequent chapters cover the PVQAT Effort; the Conformity Assessment and IECRE; and Predicting PV Module Service Life. The book finishes with a look at what the future holds for PV. A comprehensive treatment of current photovoltaic (PV) technology reliability and necessary improvement to become a significant part of the electric utility supply system Well documented with experimental and practical cases throughout, enhancing relevance to both scientific community and industry Timely contribution to the harmonization of methodological aspects of PV reliability evaluation with test procedures implemented to certify PV module quality Written by a leading international authority in PV module reliability Photovoltaic Module Reliability is an excellent book for anyone interested in PV module reliability, including those working directly on PV module and system reliability and preparing to purchase modules for deployment.

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules Book

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules


  • Author : Peter Hacke
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2010
  • Genre: Photovoltaic power generation
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:727264785

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Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules Excerpt :

The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications Book

Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications


  • Author : Michael Köhl
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2012-08-14
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 418
  • ISBN 10 : 9783527659623

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Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications Excerpt :

Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications. Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, discussing the potential of polymeric materials in solar thermal applications, as well as demands on durability, design and building integration. With its emphasis on applications, this monograph is relevant for researchers at universities and developers in commercial companies.

Future of solar photovoltaic Book

Future of solar photovoltaic


  • Author : International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA
  • Publisher : International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
  • Release Date : 2019-11-01
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 73
  • ISBN 10 : 9789292601980

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Future of solar photovoltaic Excerpt :

This study presents options to fully unlock the world’s vast solar PV potential over the period until 2050. It builds on IRENA’s global roadmap to scale up renewables and meet climate goals.

Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells Book

Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells


  • Author : Frederik C. Krebs
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2012-04-02
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN 10 : 9781118312230

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Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells Excerpt :

Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing measures for extending the duration of operation. Topics covered include: Chemical and physical probes for studying degradation Imaging techniques Photochemical stability of OPV materials Degradation mechanisms Testing methods Barrier technology and applications Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells is an essential reference source for researchers in academia and industry, engineers and manufacturers working on OPV design, development and implementation.

13th NREL Photovoltaics Program Review Book

13th NREL Photovoltaics Program Review


  • Author : Harin S. Ullal
  • Publisher : American Institute of Physics
  • Release Date : 1996
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 678
  • ISBN 10 : UOM:39015040635107

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13th NREL Photovoltaics Program Review Excerpt :

This work represents recent progress in photovoltaics technology including progress made in such areas as amorphous silicon, crystalline silican, cadmium telluride, and so on. Special focus is given to PV applications for rural electrifications.

Shell like Structures Book

Shell like Structures


  • Author : Holm Altenbach
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2016-08-09
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319422770

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Shell like Structures Excerpt :

The book presents mathematical and mechanical aspects of the theory of plates and shells, applications in civil, aero-space and mechanical engineering, as well in other areas. The focus relates to the following problems:• comprehensive review of the most popular theories of plates and shells,• relations between three-dimensional theories and two-dimensional ones,• presentation of recently developed new refined plates and shells theories (for example, the micropolar theory or gradient-type theories),• modeling of coupled effects in shells and plates related to electromagnetic and temperature fields, phase transitions, diffusion, etc.,• applications in modeling of non-classical objects like, for example, nanostructures,• presentation of actual numerical tools based on the finite element approach.

ASHRAE Handbook Book

ASHRAE Handbook


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2004
  • Genre: Air conditioning
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : UOM:39015058890230

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ASHRAE Handbook Excerpt :

Materials for Sustainable Energy Book

Materials for Sustainable Energy


  • Author : Vincent Dusastre
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2011
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 331
  • ISBN 10 : 9789814317641

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Materials for Sustainable Energy Excerpt :

The search for cleaner, cheaper, smaller and more efficient energy technologies has to a large extent been motivated by the development of new materials. The aim of this collection of articles is therefore to focus on what materials-based solutions can offer and show how the rationale design and improvement of their physical and chemical properties can lead to energy-production alternatives that have the potential to compete with existing technologies. In terms of alternative means to generate electricity that utilize renewable energy sources, the most dramatic breakthroughs for both mobile (i.e., transportation) and stationary applications are taking place in the fields of solar and fuel cells. And from an energy-storage perspective, exciting developments can be seen emerging from the fields of rechargeable batteries and hydrogen storage.

Polymeric Materials Book

Polymeric Materials


  • Author : Marta Fernández-García
  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release Date : 2019-05-28
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN 10 : 9783038979623

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Polymeric Materials Excerpt :

This book collects the articles published in the Special Issue “Polymeric Materials: Surfaces, Interfaces and Bioapplications”. It shows the advances in polymeric materials, which have tremendous applications in agricultural films, food packaging, dental restoration, antimicrobial systems, and tissue engineering. These polymeric materials are presented as films, coatings, particles, fibers, hydrogels, or networks. The potential to modify and modulate their surfaces or their content by different techniques, such as click chemistry, ozonation, breath figures, wrinkle formation, or electrospray, are also explained, taking into account the relationship between the structure and properties in the final application. Moreover, new trends in the development of such materials are presented, using more environmental friendly and safe methods, which, at the same time, have a high impact on our society.

Solar Module Packaging Book

Solar Module Packaging


  • Author : Michelle Poliskie
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2016-04-19
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 244
  • ISBN 10 : 9781439850749

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Solar Module Packaging Excerpt :

Exploring current and future opportunities in PV polymeric packaging, this work offers an insider's perspective on the manufacturing processes and needs of the solar industry and reveals opportunities for future material development and processing. Suitable for nonspecialists in polymer science, it provides a basic understanding of polymeric concepts, fundamental properties, and processing techniques commonly used in solar module packaging. The book also presents guidelines for using polymers in commercial PV modules as well as the tests required to establish confidence in the selection process.