Evolution  Explanation  Ethics and Aesthetics Book

Evolution Explanation Ethics and Aesthetics

  • Author : Francisco J. Ayala
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2016-07-21
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 420
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128037317

Evolution Explanation Ethics and Aesthetics Excerpt :

Evolution, Explanation, Ethics and Aesthetics: Towards a Philosophy of Biology focuses on the dominant biological topic of evolution. It deals with the prevailing philosophical themes of how to explain the adaptation of organisms, the interplay of chance and necessity, and the recurrent topics of emergence, reductionism, and progress. In addition, the extensively treated topic of how to explain human nature as a result of natural processes and the encompassed issues of the foundations of morality and the brain-to-mind transformation is discussed. The philosophy of biology is a rapidly expanding field, not more than half a century old at most, and to a large extent is replacing the interest in the philosophy of physics that prevailed in the first two-thirds of the twentieth century. Few texts available have the benefit of being written by an eminent biologist who happens to be also a philosopher, as in this work. This book is a useful resource for seminar courses and college courses on the philosophy of biology. Researchers, academics, and students in evolutionary biology, behavior, genetics, and biodiversity will also be interested in this work, as will those in human biology and issues such as ethics, religion, and the human mind, along with professional philosophers of science and those concerned with such issues as whether evolution is compatible with religion and/or where morality comes from. Presents the unique perspective of a distinguished biologist with extensive experience in the field who has published much about the subject in a wide variety of journals and edited volumes Covers the philosophical issues related to evolution and biology in an approachable and readable style Includes the most up-to-date treatment of this burgeoning, exciting field within biology Provides the ideal guide for researchers, academics, and students in evolutionary biology, behavior, genetics, and biodiversity

The Artful Species  Aesthetics  Art  and Evolution Book

The Artful Species Aesthetics Art and Evolution

  • Author : Stephen Davies
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release Date : 2012-11-29
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN 10 : 9780191633119

The Artful Species Aesthetics Art and Evolution Excerpt :

The Artful Species explores the idea that our aesthetic responses and art behaviors are connected to our evolved human nature. Our humanoid forerunners displayed aesthetic sensibilities hundreds of thousands of years ago and the art standing of prehistoric cave paintings is virtually uncontested. In Part One, Stephen Davies analyses the key concepts of the aesthetic, art, and evolution, and explores how they might be related. He considers a range of issues,including whether animals have aesthetic tastes and whether art is not only universal but cross-culturally comprehensible. Part Two examines the many aesthetic interests humans take in animals and how these reflect our biological interests, and the idea that our environmental and landscape preferences arerooted in the experiences of our distant ancestors. In considering the controversial subject of human beauty, evolutionary psychologists have traditionally focused on female physical attractiveness in the context of mate selection, but Davies presents a broader view which decouples human beauty from mate choice and explains why it goes more with social performance and self-presentation. Part Three asks if the arts, together or singly, are biological adaptations, incidental byproducts of nonartadaptations, or so removed from biology that they rate as purely cultural technologies. Davies does not conclusively support any one of the many positions considered here, but argues that there are grounds, nevertheless, for seeing art as part of human nature. Art serves as a powerful and complexsignal of human fitness, and so cannot be incidental to biology. Indeed, aesthetic responses and art behaviors are the touchstones of our humanity.

Evolutionary Aesthetics of Human Ethics in Hardy   s Tragic Narratives Book

Evolutionary Aesthetics of Human Ethics in Hardy s Tragic Narratives

  • Author : Rıza Öztürk
  • Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • Release Date : 2011-05-25
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Pages : 160
  • ISBN 10 : 9781443830416

Evolutionary Aesthetics of Human Ethics in Hardy s Tragic Narratives Excerpt :

Treatment of Hardy’s tragic narratives under the objective lens of evolutionary literary theory has led to three basic findings: First, within the scope of the analysis of the five major tragic narratives, representation of Hardy’s evolutionary aesthetics of human ethics, in terms of altruistic sympathy and compassion, shows that adapted parental investment in children indicates the reason why women submit to pain and suffering more than the men do. The costly investment of women in maternal behaviour leads to submission in many cases, but in return they gain better fitness for survival and reproduction than men. This is implicitly highlighted as a force of superiority in the tragedies studied, as the male characters often invest in heroic deeds over their children. Second, that which has for many years been identified as pessimism in Hardy’s tragic narratives is in fact a surface cognitive layer, under which is an implicit teaching of evolutionary aesthetics of human ethics, which guides to a true fitness of human life. Third, sympathy and particularly compassion are not only human emotions but also adapted cognitive virtues that centre on ethical teaching. Thus, an integrated model of science and humanities for art and literary analysis is required to address not only those of English language and literature departments, but also those aligned to the idea of integrating the two methods. A scientific and objective view of human life is in opposition to postmodern and structuralist approaches, which have generally been considered as the centre of interest during the latter half of the 20th century.

Beyond Evolution Book

Beyond Evolution

  • Author : Anthony O'Hear
  • Publisher : Clarendon Press
  • Release Date : 1997-10-09
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 230
  • ISBN 10 : 9780191519666

Beyond Evolution Excerpt :

Anthony O'Hear takes a stand against the fashion for explaining human behaviour in terms of evolution. He maintains, controversially, that while the theory of evolution is successful in explaining the development of the natural world in general, it is of limited value when applied to the human world. Because of our reflectiveness and our rationality we take on goals and ideals which cannot be justified in terms of survival-promotion or reproductive advantage. O'Hear examines the nature of human self-consciousness, and argues that evolutionary theory cannot give a satisfactory account of such distinctive facets of human life as the quest for knowledge, moral sense, and the appreciation of beauty; in these we transcend our biological origins. It is our rationality that allows each of us to go beyond not only our biological but also our cultural inheritance: as the author says in the Preface, 'we are prisoners neither of our genes nor of the ideas we encounter as we each make our personal and individual way through life'.

Alasdair MacIntyre s Views and Biological Ethics Book

Alasdair MacIntyre s Views and Biological Ethics

  • Author : Sherel Jeevan Joseph Mendonsa
  • Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • Release Date : 2022-11-29
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 261
  • ISBN 10 : 9781527591318

Alasdair MacIntyre s Views and Biological Ethics Excerpt :

Some of the most fundamental questions which moral philosophers have been grappling with include: What makes us moral beings? Is morality a product of culture or nature or both? Are ethical norms and principles universal and unchanging or are they relative, being rooted in specific socio-political and historical contexts? Can ethical conclusions be derived from descriptive statements? This book addresses these and similar questions through a comparative study between Alasdair MacIntyre’s views and biological ethics. It discusses how both MacIntyre’s views and biological ethics highlight the importance of human biology for human morality. Based on this discussion, the book proposes that both the rational and the biological (including the emotional) dimensions of humans have to be considered in order to understand the complex and multi-layered phenomenon of human morality. As such, it will prove to be a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students of moral philosophy, especially those interested in studying the biological approach toward ethics, Thomistic Aristotelian ethics and metaethics.

Musical Aesthetics Book

Musical Aesthetics

  • Author : Jonathan L. Friedmann
  • Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • Release Date : 2018-07-27
  • Genre: Music
  • Pages : 179
  • ISBN 10 : 9781527514904

Musical Aesthetics Excerpt :

This book contains six chapters covering key areas of musical aesthetics, including aesthetics of emotions; aesthetics of listening; aesthetics of performance; aesthetics of composition; aesthetics of nature; and aesthetics of commerce. Each chapter adopts an experiential approach to aesthetics, in which perceptual and intuitive musical responses – real-time experiences – are valued as a source of truth. Unlike intellectual aesthetics, which values conscious associations and meticulous artistic appraisals, experiential aesthetics looks primarily at everyday subconscious appreciations. The explorations here draw from the social sciences, hard sciences, philosophy, literature, theology, musicology, humanities, and other fields that directly or indirectly contribute to an understanding of our attraction to music. Presenting user-friendly distillations of numerous theories, concepts, and functions, this book will be of interest to both lay readers and expert practitioners.

The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying Book

The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying

  • Author : Darren Hudson Hick
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release Date : 2016-10-20
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN 10 : 9781474254526

The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying Excerpt :

The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying responds to the rapidly changing attitudes towards the use of another's ideas, styles, and artworks. With advances in technology making the copying of artworks and other artefacts exponentially easier, questions of copying no longer focus on the problems of forgery: they now expand into aesthetic and ethical legal concerns. This volume addresses the changes and provides the first philosophical foundation for an aesthetics and ethics of copying. Scholars from philosophy of art, philosophy of technology, philosophy of law, ethics, legal theory, media studies, art history, literary theory, and sociology discuss the role that copying plays in human culture, confronting the question of how-and why-copying fits into our broader system of values. Teasing out the factors and conceptual distinctions that must be accounted for in an ontology of copying, they set a groundwork for understanding the nature of copies and copying, showing how these interweave with ethical and legal concepts. Covering unique concerns for copying in the domain of artworks, from music and art to plays and literature, contributors look at work by artists including Heinrich von Kleist, Robert Rauschenberg, Courbet and Manet and conclude with the normative dimensions of copying in the twenty-first century. By bringing this topic into the philosophical domain and highlighting its philosophical relevance, The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying establishes the complex conditions-ontological, aesthetic, ethical, cultural, and legal-that underlie and complicate the topic. The result is a timely collection that establishes the need for further discussion.

Evolutionary Aesthetics Book

Evolutionary Aesthetics

  • Author : Eckart Voland
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-04-17
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 380
  • ISBN 10 : 9783662071427

Evolutionary Aesthetics Excerpt :

Evolutionary aesthetics is the attempt to understand the aesthetic judgement of human beings and their spontaneous distinction between "beauty" and "ugliness" as a biologically adapted ability to make important decisions in life. The hypothesis is - both in the area of "natural beauty" and in sexuality, with regard to landscape preferences, but also in the area of "artificial beauty" (i.e. in art and design) - that beauty opens up fitness opportunities, while ugliness holds fitness risks. In this book, this adaptive view of aesthetics is developed theoretically, presented on the basis of numerous examples, and its consequences for evolutionary anthropology are illuminated.

The Cognitive Underpinnings of Anthropomorphism Book

The Cognitive Underpinnings of Anthropomorphism

  • Author : Gabriella Airenti
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2019-10-04
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 132
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889630387

The Cognitive Underpinnings of Anthropomorphism Excerpt :

The attribution of human traits to non-humans - animals, artifacts or even natural events - is an attitude, deeply grounded in human mind. It is frequent to see children addressing dolls and figures as if they were alive. Adults often attribute mental states and emotions to animals. In everyday life humans speak of events such as fires as if they possessed some form of intentionality, a behavior sometimes shared also by scientists. Furthermore, a systematized form of anthropomorphism underlies most religions. The pervasiveness of this phenomenon makes it a particularly interesting object of psychological enquiry. Psychologists have set out to understand which aspects of human mind are involved in this behavior, its motivations and the circumstances favoring its enactment. Moreover, there is an ongoing debate among scientists about the merits or harm of anthropomorphism in the scientific study of animal behavior and in scientific discourse. Despite the interest and the specificity of the topic most of the relevant studies are scattered across disciplines and have not built a systematic research framework. This observation has motivated the collection of articles presented here, under the unifying perspective of the cognitive underpinnings of anthropomorphism. Within this general umbrella, the authors included in this e-book have explored the issues mentioned above from different points of view. From their work it emerges that far from being the result of naive beliefs, the exercise of anthropomorphism involves a multiplicity of mental abilities including perception and imagination. They also show that the context and the interactive situation are crucial to understanding this phenomenon. Some authors analyze the relationship between anthropomorphization and theory of mind abilities both in typical and atypical populations. Finally, others contributions have identified possible benefits deriving from the natural attitude to anthropomorphize, as a design philosophy for

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy Book
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The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

  • Author : Ted Honderich
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release Date : 2005-03-10
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 1088
  • ISBN 10 : 9780191037474

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy Excerpt :

Oxford University Press presents a major new edition of the definitive philosophical reference work for readers at all levels. For ten years the original volume has served as a stimulating introduction for general readers and as an indispensable guide for students; its breadth and depth of coverage have ensured that it is also read with pleasure and interest by those working at a higher level in philosophy and related disciplines. A distinguished international assembly of 249 philosophers contributed almost 2,000 entries, and many of these have now been considerably revised and updated; to these are added over 300 brand-new pieces on a fascinating range of current topics. This new edition offers enlightening and enjoyable discussions of all aspects of philosophy, and of the lives and work of the great philosophers from antiquity to the present day.

Ecological Awareness Book

Ecological Awareness

  • Author : Sigurd Bergmann
  • Publisher : LIT Verlag Münster
  • Release Date : 2011
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 263
  • ISBN 10 : 9783825819507

Ecological Awareness Excerpt :

Ecological Awareness, with seventeen authors from multiple disciplines, explores how religious practitioners have become increasingly aware of ecological challenges. It sheds new light on an essential function of belief systems, which function not only as cognitive and moral systems, but emerge from and affect the human body and its mode of perceiving our milieu and ourselves within it. The book also contributes to an increasing awareness of our embeddedness in larger life processes, as well as the awareness of life as a gift.

The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics Book

The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics

  • Author : Michael Ruse
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2017-08-24
  • Genre: History
  • Pages : 343
  • ISBN 10 : 9781107132955

The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics Excerpt :

This book introduces readers to the application of evolutionary ideas to moral thinking and justification, presenting contrasting perspectives on controversial issues.

Constructing Ethical Patterns in Times of Globalization Book

Constructing Ethical Patterns in Times of Globalization

  • Author : Aleksi Kuokkanen
  • Publisher : BRILL
  • Release Date : 2012-01-20
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 505
  • ISBN 10 : 9789004224339

Constructing Ethical Patterns in Times of Globalization Excerpt :

Inspired by the Catholic theologian Hans Küng, this book searches for a model for global ethics by analysing the contemporary philosophical discussion. It demonstrates that the Western model is unable to reckon with exclusivism and difference and presents an alternative model.

The Image in Mind Book

The Image in Mind

  • Author : Charles Taliaferro
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release Date : 2011-01-10
  • Genre: Religion
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN 10 : 9781441168115

The Image in Mind Excerpt :

A philosophical inquiry into the strengths and weaknesses of theism and naturalism in accounting for the emergence of consciousness, the visual imagination and aesthetic values. The authors begin by offering an account of modern scientific practice which gives a central place to the visual imagination and aesthetic values. They then move to test the explanatory power of naturalism and theism in accounting for consciousness and the very visual imagination and aesthetic values that lie behind and define modern science. Taliaferro and Evans argue that evolutionary biology alone is insufficient to account for consciousness, the visual imagination and aesthetic values. Insofar as naturalism is compelled to go beyond evolutionary biology, it does not fare as well as theism in terms of explanatory power.

The Future of Reason  Science and Faith Book

The Future of Reason Science and Faith

  • Author : Revd Dr J Andrew Kirk
  • Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • Release Date : 2013-05-28
  • Genre: Religion
  • Pages : 274
  • ISBN 10 : 9781409477389

The Future of Reason Science and Faith Excerpt :

Focusing on the history of ideas, this book explores important questions concerning knowledge in relation to philosophy, science, ethics and Christian faith. Kirk contributes to the current debate about the intellectual basis and integrity of Western culture, exploring controversial issues concerning the notions of modernity and post-modernity. Repositioning the Christian faith as a valid dialogue partner with contemporary secular movements in philosophy and ethics, Kirk seeks to show that in 'post-Christian' Europe the Christian faith still possesses intellectual resources worthy to be reckoned with. This book's principal argument is that contemporary Western society faces a cultural crisis. It explores what appears to be an historical enigma, namely the question of why Western intellectual endeavours in philosophy and science seem to have abandoned the search for a source of knowledge able to draw together disparate pieces of information provided by different disciplines. Kirk draws conclusions, particularly in the area of ethical decision-making, from this apparent failure and invites readers to consider Christian theism afresh as a means for the renewal of culture and society.