From an Antagonistic to a Synergistic Predator Prey Perspective Book

From an Antagonistic to a Synergistic Predator Prey Perspective

  • Author : Tore Johannessen
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2014-03-11
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 228
  • ISBN 10 : 9780124201118

From an Antagonistic to a Synergistic Predator Prey Perspective Excerpt :

From an Antagonistic to a Synergistic Predator Prey Perspective: Bifurcations in Marine Ecosystems is a groundbreaking reference that challenges the widespread perception that predators generally have a negative impact on the abundance of their prey, and it proposes a novel paradigm — Predator-prey Synergism — in which both predator and prey enhance abundance by their co-existence. Using this model, the text explains a number of issues that appear paradoxical in the case of a negative predator-prey relationship, including observed ecosystem bifurcations (regime shifts), ecosystem resilience, red tides in apparently nutrient depleted water, and the dominance of grazed phytoplankton over non-grazed species under high grazing pressure. This novel paradigm can also be used to predict the potential impact of global warming on marine ecosystems, identify how marine ecosystem may respond to gradual environmental changes, and develop possible measures to mitigate the negative impact of increasing temperature in marine ecosystems. This book approaches the long-standing question of what generates recruitment variability in marine fishes and invertebrates in an engaging and unique way that students and researchers in marine ecosystems will understand. Introduces a new paradigm, Predator-prey Synergism, as a building block on which to construct new ecological theories. It suggests that Predator-prey Synergism is important in some terrestrial ecosystems and is in agreement with the punctuated equilibria theory of evolution (i.e., stepwise evolution). Suggests a general solution to the recruitment puzzle in marine organisms Proposes a holistic hypothesis for marine spring blooming ecosystems by considering variability enhancing and variability dampening processes Asserts that fisheries will induce variability in marine ecosystems and alter the energy flow patterns in predictable ways

Mutualism Book


  • Author : Judith L. Bronstein
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2015
  • Genre: Mutualism
  • Pages : 297
  • ISBN 10 : 9780199675654

Mutualism Excerpt :

Mutualisms, interactions between two species that benefit both of them, have long captured the public imagination. Their influence transcends levels of biological organization from cells to populations, communities, and ecosystems. Mutualistic symbioses were crucial to the origin of eukaryotic cells, and perhaps to the invasion of land. Mutualisms occur in every terrestrial and aquatic habitat; indeed, ecologists now believe that almost every species on Earth is involved directly or indirectly in one or more of these interactions. Mutualisms are essential to the reproduction and survival of virtually all organisms, as well as to nutrient cycles in ecosystems. Furthermore, the key ecosystem services that mutualists provide mean that they are increasingly being considered as conservation priorities, ironically at the same time as the acute risks to their ecological and evolutionary persistence are increasingly being identified. This volume, the first general work on mutualism to appear in almost thirty years, provides a detailed and conceptually-oriented overview of the subject. Focusing on a range of ecological and evolutionary aspects over different scales (from individual to ecosystem), the chapters in this book provide expert coverage of our current understanding of mutualism whilst highlighting the most important questions that remain to be answered. In bringing together a diverse team of expert contributors, this novel text captures the excitement of a dynamic field that will help to define its future research agenda.

Resolving Ecosystem Complexity  MPB 47  Book

Resolving Ecosystem Complexity MPB 47

  • Author : Oswald J. Schmitz
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release Date : 2010-07-01
  • Genre: Nature
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN 10 : 9781400834174

Resolving Ecosystem Complexity MPB 47 Excerpt :

An ecosystem's complexity develops from the vast numbers of species interacting in ecological communities. The nature of these interactions, in turn, depends on environmental context. How do these components together influence an ecosystem's behavior as a whole? Can ecologists resolve an ecosystem's complexity in order to predict its response to disturbances? Resolving Ecosystem Complexity develops a framework for anticipating the ways environmental context determines the functioning of ecosystems. Oswald Schmitz addresses the critical questions of contemporary ecology: How should an ecosystem be conceptualized to blend its biotic and biophysical components? How should evolutionary ecological principles be used to derive an operational understanding of complex, adaptive ecosystems? How should the relationship between the functional biotic diversity of ecosystems and their properties be understood? Schmitz begins with the universal concept that ecosystems are comprised of species that consume resources and which are then resources for other consumers. From this, he deduces a fundamental rule or evolutionary ecological mechanism for explaining context dependency: individuals within a species trade off foraging gains against the risk of being consumed by predators. Through empirical examples, Schmitz illustrates how species use evolutionary ecological strategies to negotiate a predator-eat-predator world, and he suggests that the implications of species trade-offs are critical to making ecology a predictive science. Bridging the traditional divides between individuals, populations, and communities in ecology, Resolving Ecosystem Complexity builds a systematic foundation for thinking about natural systems.

Encyclopedia of Ecology Book

Encyclopedia of Ecology

  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release Date : 2014-11-03
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 3120
  • ISBN 10 : 9780080914565

Encyclopedia of Ecology Excerpt :

The groundbreaking Encyclopedia of Ecology provides an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the complete field of ecology, from general to applied. It includes over 500 detailed entries, structured to provide the user with complete coverage of the core knowledge, accessed as intuitively as possible, and heavily cross-referenced. Written by an international team of leading experts, this revolutionary encyclopedia will serve as a one-stop-shop to concise, stand-alone articles to be used as a point of entry for undergraduate students, or as a tool for active researchers looking for the latest information in the field. Entries cover a range of topics, including: Behavioral Ecology Ecological Processes Ecological Modeling Ecological Engineering Ecological Indicators Ecological Informatics Ecosystems Ecotoxicology Evolutionary Ecology General Ecology Global Ecology Human Ecology System Ecology The first reference work to cover all aspects of ecology, from basic to applied Over 500 concise, stand-alone articles are written by prominent leaders in the field Article text is supported by full-color photos, drawings, tables, and other visual material Fully indexed and cross referenced with detailed references for further study Writing level is suited to both the expert and non-expert Available electronically on ScienceDirect shortly upon publication

Perspectives for Agroecosystem Management  Book

Perspectives for Agroecosystem Management

  • Author : Peter Schroder
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2011-08-19
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 456
  • ISBN 10 : 0080556396

Perspectives for Agroecosystem Management Excerpt :

Sustainable agriculture is a key concept for scientists, researchers, and agricultural engineers alike. This book focuses on the FAM- project (FAM Munich Research Network on Agroecosystems) of the 1990s as a means to assessing, forecasting, and evaluating changes in the agroecosystems that are necessary for agricultural sustainability. The management of two separate management systems: an organic and an integrated farming system are described to provide an interdisciplinary approach Changes of matter fluxes in soils, changes of trace gas fluxes from soils, precision farming in a small scale heterogen landscape, influence of management changes on flora and fauna, as well as the development of agroecosystem models, the assessment of soil variability and the changes in nutrient status are important aspects of this book. * Contains detailed results and insight of a long-time project on agricultural sustainability * Provides an interdisciplinary approach for comprehensive understanding by scientists and researchers of soil, plants, agriculture, and environment * Includes an international perspective

Dynamic Food Webs Book

Dynamic Food Webs

  • Author : Peter C de Ruiter
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2005-12-20
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 608
  • ISBN 10 : 0080460941

Dynamic Food Webs Excerpt :

Dynamic Food Webs challenges us to rethink what factors may determine ecological and evolutionary pathways of food web development. It touches upon the intriguing idea that trophic interactions drive patterns and dynamics at different levels of biological organization: dynamics in species composition, dynamics in population life-history parameters and abundances, and dynamics in individual growth, size and behavior. These dynamics are shown to be strongly interrelated governing food web structure and stability and the role of populations and communities play in ecosystem functioning. Dynamic Food Webs not only offers over 100 illustrations, but also contains 8 riveting sections devoted to an understanding of how to manage the effects of environmental change, the protection of biological diversity and the sustainable use of natural resources. Dynamic Food Webs is a volume in the Theoretical Ecology series. Relates dynamics on different levels of biological organization: individuals, populations, and communities Deals with empirical and theoretical approaches Discusses the role of community food webs in ecosystem functioning Proposes methods to assess the effects of environmental change on the structure of biological communities and ecosystem functioning Offers an analyses of the relationship between complexity and stability in food webs

Sustainable Agriculture Volume 2 Book

Sustainable Agriculture Volume 2

  • Author : Eric Lichtfouse
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2011-02-09
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 992
  • ISBN 10 : 9789400703940

Sustainable Agriculture Volume 2 Excerpt :

This book gathers review articles that analyze current agricultural issues and knowledge, then propose alternative solutions. It will therefore help all scientists, decision-makers, professors, farmers and politicians who wish to build a safe agriculture, energy and food system for future generations.

Can J Microbiol Book

Can J Microbiol

  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1990
  • Genre: Microbiology
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : MINN:31951P00031596X

Can J Microbiol Excerpt :

Circadian Rhythms in Bacteria and Microbiomes Book

Circadian Rhythms in Bacteria and Microbiomes

  • Author : Carl Hirschie Johnson
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2021-06-21
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 415
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030721589

Circadian Rhythms in Bacteria and Microbiomes Excerpt :

This book addresses multiple aspects of biological clocks in prokaryotes. The first part of the book deals with the circadian clock system in cyanobacteria, i.e. the pioneer of bacterial clocks. Starting with the history and background of cyanobacteria and circadian rhythms in microorganisms, the topics range from the molecular basis, structure and evolution of the circadian clock to modelling approaches, Kai systems in cyanobacteria and biotechnological applications. In the second part, emergent timekeeping properties of bacteria in microbiomes and bacteria other than cyanobacteria are discussed. Since the discovery of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria in the late 1980s, the field has exploded with new information. The cyanobacterial model system for studying circadian rhythms (Synechococcus elongatus), has allowed a detailed genetic dissection of the bacterial clock due to state-of-the-art methods in molecular, structural, and evolutionary biology. Cutting-edge research spanning from cyanobacteria and circadian phenomena in other kinds of bacteria, to microbiomes has now given the field another major boost. This book is aimed at junior and senior researchers alike. Students or researchers new to the field of biological clocks in prokaryotes will get a comprehensive overview, while more experienced researchers will get an update on the latest developments.

Engineered Nanoparticles Book

Engineered Nanoparticles

  • Author : Ashok K Singh
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2015-11-24
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 554
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128014929

Engineered Nanoparticles Excerpt :

Engineered Nanoparticles: Structure, Properties and Mechanisms of Toxicity is an indispensable introduction to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and their potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. Although research in the area of pharmacology and toxicology of ENM is rapidly advancing, a possible correlation between their physicochemical properties and biomedical properties or toxicity is not yet fully understood. This understanding is essential to develop strategies for the safe applications and handling of ENM. The book comprehensively defines the current understanding of ENM toxicity, first describing these materials and their physicochemical properties, and then discussing the toxicological theory and methodology before finally demonstrating the potential impact of ENM on the environment and human health. It represents an essential reference for students and investigators in toxicology, pharmacology, chemistry, material sciences, medicine, and those in related disciplines who require an introduction to ENM and their potential toxicological effects. Provides state-of-the-art physicochemical descriptions and methodologies for the characterization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) Describes the potential toxicological effects of ENM and the nanotoxicological mechanisms of action Presents how to apply theory to practice in a public health and risk assessment setting

Amphibian Declines Book

Amphibian Declines

  • Author : Michael J. Lannoo
  • Publisher : Univ of California Press
  • Release Date : 2005-06-15
  • Genre: Nature
  • Pages : 1094
  • ISBN 10 : 0520235924

Amphibian Declines Excerpt :

Documents in comprehensive detail a major environmental crisis: rapidly declining amphibian populations and the disturbing developmental problems that are increasingly prevalent within many amphibian species.

Biodiversity  Ecosystem Functioning  and Human Wellbeing Book

Biodiversity Ecosystem Functioning and Human Wellbeing

  • Author : Shahid Naeem
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2009-07-30
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN 10 : 9780199547951

Biodiversity Ecosystem Functioning and Human Wellbeing Excerpt :

The book starts by summarizing the development of the basic science and provides a meta-analysis that quantitatively tests several biodiversity and ecosystem functioning hypotheses.

Advances in Marine Biology Book

Advances in Marine Biology

  • Author : Michael Lesser
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2011
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 244
  • ISBN 10 : 9780123855299

Advances in Marine Biology Excerpt :

Advances in Marine Biology has been providing in-depth and up-to-date reviews on all aspects of marine biology since 1963 -- over 45 years of outstanding coverage! The series is well-known for both its excellence of reviews and editing. Now edited by Michael Lesser, with an internationally renowned Editorial Board, the serial publishes in-depth and up-to-date content on a wide range of topics that will appeal to postgraduates and researchers in marine biology, fisheries science, ecology, zoology, and biological oceanography. Advances in Marine Biology has been providing in-depth and up-to-date reviews on all aspects of marine biology since 1963 -- over 45 years of outstanding coverage! The series is well-known for both its excellence of reviews and editing Now edited by Michael Lesser, with an internationally renowned Editorial Board, the serial publishes in-depth and up-to-date content on a wide range of topics that will appeal to postgraduates and researchers in marine biology, fisheries science, ecology, zoology, and biological oceanography

Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals Book

Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals

  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2017-05-04
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 146
  • ISBN 10 : 9780309440516

Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals Excerpt :

Marine mammals face a large array of stressors, including loss of habitat, chemical and noise pollution, and bycatch in fishing, which alone kills hundreds of thousands of marine mammals per year globally. To discern the factors contributing to population trends, scientists must consider the full complement of threats faced by marine mammals. Once populations or ecosystems are found to be at risk of adverse impacts, it is critical to decide which combination of stressors to reduce to bring the population or ecosystem into a more favorable state. Assessing all stressors facing a marine mammal population also provides the environmental context for evaluating whether an additional activity could threaten it. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals builds upon previous reports to assess current methodologies used for evaluating cumulative effects and identify new approaches that could improve these assessments. This review focuses on ways to quantify exposure-related changes in the behavior, health, or body condition of individual marine mammals and makes recommendations for future research initiatives.