General Philosophy of Science  Focal Issues Book

General Philosophy of Science Focal Issues


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2007-07-18
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 708
  • ISBN 10 : 0080548547

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General Philosophy of Science Focal Issues Excerpt :

Scientists use concepts and principles that are partly specific for their subject matter, but they also share part of them with colleagues working in different fields. Compare the biological notion of a 'natural kind' with the general notion of 'confirmation' of a hypothesis by certain evidence. Or compare the physical principle of the 'conservation of energy' and the general principle of 'the unity of science'. Scientists agree that all such notions and principles aren't as crystal clear as one might wish. An important task of the philosophy of the special sciences, such as philosophy of physics, of biology and of economics, to mention only a few of the many flourishing examples, is the clarification of such subject specific concepts and principles. Similarly, an important task of 'general' philosophy of science is the clarification of concepts like 'confirmation' and principles like 'the unity of science'. It is evident that clarfication of concepts and principles only makes sense if one tries to do justice, as much as possible, to the actual use of these notions by scientists, without however following this use slavishly. That is, occasionally a philosopher may have good reasons for suggesting to scientists that they should deviate from a standard use. Frequently, this amounts to a plea for differentiation in order to stop debates at cross-purposes due to the conflation of different meanings. While the special volumes of the series of Handbooks of the Philosophy of Science address topics relative to a specific discipline, this general volume deals with focal issues of a general nature. After an editorial introduction about the dominant method of clarifying concepts and principles in philosophy of science, called explication, the first five chapters deal with the following subjects. Laws, theories, and research programs as units of empirical knowledge (Theo Kuipers), various past and contemporary perspectives on explanation (Stathis Psillos), the evaluation of the

General Philosophy of Science Book

General Philosophy of Science


  • Author : Theo A. F. Kuipers
  • Publisher : North-Holland
  • Release Date : 2007
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 683
  • ISBN 10 : 0444515488

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General Philosophy of Science Excerpt :

Laws, theories, and research programs as units of empirical knowledge (Theo Kuipers), various past and contemporary perspectives on explanation (Stathis Psillos), the evaluation of theories in terms of their virtues (Ilkka Niiniluto), and the role of experiments in the natural sciences, notably physics and biology (Allan Franklin), and their role in the social sciences, notably economics (Wenceslao Gonzalez). In the subsequent three chapters there is even more attention to various positions and methods that philosophers of science and scientists may favor: ontological, epistemological, and methodological positions (James Ladyman), reduction, integration, and the unity of science as aims in the sciences and the humanities (William Bechtel and Andrew Hamilton), and logical, historical and computational approaches to the philosophy of science (Atocha Aliseda and Donald Gillies).-

Philosophy of Science Book

Philosophy of Science


  • Author : Gerhard Schurz
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2013-11-20
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 460
  • ISBN 10 : 9781134101221

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Philosophy of Science Excerpt :

Philosophy of Science: A Unified Approach combines a general introduction to philosophy of science with an integrated survey of all its important subfields. As the book’s subtitle suggests, this excellent overview is guided methodologically by "a unified approach" to philosophy of science: behind the diversity of scientific fields one can recognize a methodological unity of the sciences. This unity is worked out in this book, revealing all the while important differences between subject areas. Structurally, this comprehensive book offers a two-part approach, which makes it an excellent introduction for students new to the field and a useful resource for more advanced students. Each chapter is divided into two sections. The first section assumes no foreknowledge of the subject introduced, and the second section builds upon the first by bringing into the conversation more advanced, complementary topics. Definitions, key propositions, examples and figures overview all of the core material. At the end of every chapter there are selected readings and exercises (with solutions at the end of the book). The book also includes a comprehensive bibliography and an index.

The Philosophy of Science Book

The Philosophy of Science


  • Author : Anouk Barberousse
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2018-06-28
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 688
  • ISBN 10 : 9780190690656

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The Philosophy of Science Excerpt :

Philosophy of science studies the methods, theories, and concepts used by scientists. It mainly developed as a field in its own right during the twentieth century and is now a diversified and lively research area. This book surveys the current state of the discipline by focusing on central themes like confirmation of scientific hypotheses, scientific explanation, causality, the relationship between science and metaphysics, scientific change, the relationship between philosophy of science and science studies, the role of theories and models, unity of science. These themes define general philosophy of science. The book also presents sub-disciplines in the philosophy of science dealing with the main sciences: logic, mathematics, physics, biology, medicine, cognitive science, linguistics, social sciences, and economics. While it is common to address the specific philosophical problems raised by physics and biology in such a book, the place assigned to the philosophy of special sciences is much more unusual. Most authors collaborate on a regular basis in their research or teaching and share a common vision of philosophy of science and its place within philosophy and academia in general. The chapters have been written in close accordance with the three editors, thus achieving strong unity of style and tone.

Philosophy of Chemistry Book

Philosophy of Chemistry


  • Author : Hrvoj Vančik
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2021-03-22
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 151
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030692247

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Philosophy of Chemistry Excerpt :

This book, Philosophy of Chemistry, is dedicated to some of the general principles of philosophy of chemistry, the special branch of philosophy of science. Since the work is a collection of lectures that the Author gave at the University of Zagreb (Croatia) during the period of twenty years, the book could serve also as a university textbook in philosophy of chemistry. Philosophy of chemistry is represented through the discussion about some of the general philosophical problems such as, theory of complexity, autonomy of sciences, epistemology, falsificationism, emergence and unity of science, holism and reductionism, the problem of identity, and hierarchical structures, as well as the teleological aspects of science. The work consists from thirteen chapters where the main science-philosophical problems are represented and discussed within the historical context of the development of chemistry as a science. The book is aimed at wider academic audience interesting in the philosophy of science, and especially at university students of life sciences.

Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences Book
Score: 4
From 1 Ratings

Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2009-11-27
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 1472
  • ISBN 10 : 0080930743

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Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences Excerpt :

The Handbook Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences addresses numerous issues in the emerging field of the philosophy of those sciences that are involved in the technological process of designing, developing and making of new technical artifacts and systems. These issues include the nature of design, of technological knowledge, and of technical artifacts, as well as the toolbox of engineers. Most of these have thus far not been analyzed in general philosophy of science, which has traditionally but inadequately regarded technology as mere applied science and focused on physics, biology, mathematics and the social sciences. • First comprehensive philosophical handbook on technology and the engineering sciences • Unparalleled in scope including explorative articles • In depth discussion of technical artifacts and their ontology • Provides extensive analysis of the nature of engineering design • Focuses in detail on the role of models in technology

Theory and Reality Book
Score: 4
From 1 Ratings

Theory and Reality


  • Author : Peter Godfrey-Smith
  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Release Date : 2021-07-16
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN 10 : 9780226771137

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Theory and Reality Excerpt :

How does science work? Does it tell us what the world is “really” like? What makes it different from other ways of understanding the universe? In Theory and Reality, Peter Godfrey-Smith addresses these questions by taking the reader on a grand tour of more than a hundred years of debate about science. The result is a completely accessible introduction to the main themes of the philosophy of science. Examples and asides engage the beginning student, a glossary of terms explains key concepts, and suggestions for further reading are included at the end of each chapter. Like no other text in this field, Theory and Reality combines a survey of recent history of the philosophy of science with current key debates that any beginning scholar or critical reader can follow. The second edition is thoroughly updated and expanded by the author with a new chapter on truth, simplicity, and models in science.

French Studies in the Philosophy of Science Book

French Studies in the Philosophy of Science


  • Author : Anastasios Brenner
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2009-04-14
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 375
  • ISBN 10 : 9781402093685

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French Studies in the Philosophy of Science Excerpt :

Having examined previous volumes of the Boston Studies series devoted to different countries, and having discussed the best way to present contemporary research in France, we have arrived at a careful selection of 15 participants, including the organizers. Our aim is to bring together philosophers and practicing scientist from the major institutions of the country, both universities and research centers. The areas of research represented here cover a wide spectrum of sciences, from mathematics and physics to the life sciences, as well as linguistics and economics. This selection is a showcase of French philosophy of science, illustrating the different methods employed: logico-linguistic analysis, rational reconstruction and historical inquiry. These participants have the ability to relate their research both to the French tradition and current discussions on the international scene. Also included is a substantial historical introduction, explaining the development of philosophy of science in France, the various schools of thought and methods as well as the major concepts and their significance.

Philosophy of Science for Biologists Book

Philosophy of Science for Biologists


  • Author : Kostas Kampourakis
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2020-07-31
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 275
  • ISBN 10 : 9781108491839

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Philosophy of Science for Biologists Excerpt :

A short and accessible introduction to philosophy of science for students and researchers across the life sciences.

Teaching General Chemistry Book

Teaching General Chemistry


  • Author : Mansoor Niaz
  • Publisher : Nova Publishers
  • Release Date : 2008
  • Genre: Education
  • Pages : 167
  • ISBN 10 : 160456105X

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Teaching General Chemistry Excerpt :

The main objective of this monograph is to incorporate history and philosophy of science in the chemistry curriculum in order to provide students an overview of the dynamics of scientific research, which involves controversies, conflicts and rivalries among scientists, that is the humanising aspects of science. A major thesis of this book is the parallel between the construction of knowledge by the students and the scientists. In looking for this relationship, it is not necessary that ontogeny recapitulate phylogeny, but rather to establish that students can face similar difficulties in conceptualising problems as those faced by the scientists in the past. Given the vast amount of literature on students' alternative conceptions (misconceptions) in science, it is plausible to suggest that these can be considered not as mistakes, but rather as tentative models, leading to greater conceptual understanding. Just as scientists resist changes in the 'hard-core' of their beliefs by offering 'auxiliary hypotheses', students may adopt similar strategies. Conceptual change, in science education can thus be conceptualised as building of tentative models that provide greater explanatory power to students' understanding.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science Book

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science


  • Author : Paul Humphreys
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2016-08-04
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 960
  • ISBN 10 : 9780190630706

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The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science Excerpt :

This handbook provides both an overview of state-of-the-art scholarship in philosophy of science, as well as a guide to new directions in the discipline. Section I contains broad overviews of the main lines of research and the state of established knowledge in six principal areas of the discipline, including computational, physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, as well as general philosophy of science. Section II covers what are considered to be the traditional topics in the philosophy of science, such as causation, probability, models, ethics and values, and explanation. Section III identifies new areas of investigation that show promise of becoming important areas of research, including the philosophy of astronomy and astrophysics, data, complexity theory, neuroscience, simulations, post-Kuhnian philosophy, post-empiricist epistemology, and emergence. Most chapters are accessible to scientifically educated non-philosophers as well as to professional philosophers, and the contributors - all leading researchers in their field -- bring diverse perspectives from the North American, European, and Australasian research communities. This volume is an essential resource for scholars and students.

Integrating History and Philosophy of Science Book

Integrating History and Philosophy of Science


  • Author : Seymour Mauskopf
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2011-09-06
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN 10 : 9400717458

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Integrating History and Philosophy of Science Excerpt :

Though the publication of Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions seemed to herald the advent of a unified study of the history and philosophy of science, it is a hard fact that history of science and philosophy of science have increasingly grown apart. Recently, however, there has been a series of workshops on both sides of the Atlantic (called '&HPS') intended to bring historians and philosophers of science together to discuss new integrative approaches. This is therefore an especially appropriate time to explore the problems with and prospects for integrating history and philosophy of science. The original essays in this volume, all from specialists in the history of science or philosophy of science, offer such an exploration from a wide variety of perspectives. The volume combines general reflections on the current state of history and philosophy of science with studies of the relation between the two disciplines in specific historical and scientific cases.

Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences Book

Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences


  • Author : Jaan Valsiner
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2019-12-11
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Pages : 305
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030330996

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Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences Excerpt :

This is an international and interdisciplinary volume that provides a new look at the general background of the social sciences from a philosophical perspective and provides directions for methodology. It seeks to overcome the limitations of the traditional treatises of a philosophy of science rooted in the physical sciences, as well as extend the coverage of basic science to intentional and socially normative features of the social sciences. The discussions included in this book are divided into four thematic sections: Social and cognitive roots for reflexivity upon the research process Philosophies of explanation in the social sciences Social normativity in social sciences Social processes in particular sciences Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences will find an interested audience in students of the philosophy of science and social sciences. It is also relevant for researchers and students in the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, anthropology, education, and political science.

Understanding Philosophy of Science Book
Score: 4
From 1 Ratings

Understanding Philosophy of Science


  • Author : James Ladyman
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2012-08-06
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN 10 : 9781134597901

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Understanding Philosophy of Science Excerpt :

Few can imagine a world without telephones or televisions; many depend on computers and the Internet as part of daily life. Without scientific theory, these developments would not have been possible. In this exceptionally clear and engaging introduction to philosophy of science, James Ladyman explores the philosophical questions that arise when we reflect on the nature of the scientific method and the knowledge it produces. He discusses whether fundamental philosophical questions about knowledge and reality might be answered by science, and considers in detail the debate between realists and antirealists about the extent of scientific knowledge. Along the way, central topics in philosophy of science, such as the demarcation of science from non-science, induction, confirmation and falsification, the relationship between theory and observation and relativism are all addressed. Important and complex current debates over underdetermination, inference to the best explaination and the implications of radical theory change are clarified and clearly explained for those new to the subject.

Philosophy of Science Book

Philosophy of Science


  • Author : Samir Okasha
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2016
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages : 140
  • ISBN 10 : 9780198745587

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Philosophy of Science Excerpt :

How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully "objective?" What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.