Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : Mohar Singh
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780123984944

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

Grain legumes, including common-bean, chickpea, pigeonpea, pea, cowpea, lentil and others, form important constituents of global diets, both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Despite this significant role, global production has increased only marginally in the past 50 years. The slow production growth, along with a rising human population and improved buying capacity has substantially reduced the per capita availability of food legumes. Changes in environmental climate have also had significant impact on production, creating a need to identify stable donors among genetic resources for environmentally robust genes and designing crops resilient to climate change. Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement is the first book to bring together the latest resources in plant genetics and genomics to facilitate the identification of specific germplasm, trait mapping and allele mining to more effectively develop biotic and abiotic-stress-resistant grains. This book will be an invaluable resource for researchers, crop biologists and students working with crop development. Explores origin, distribution and diversity of grain legumes Presents information on germplasm collection, evaluation and maintenance Offers insight into pre-breeding/germplasm enhancement efforts Integrates genomic and genetic resources in crop improvement Internationally contributed work

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : Petr Smýkal
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064375

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

Pea is an important temperate region pulse, with feed, fodder and vegetable uses. It originated and was domesticated in Middle East and Mediterranean regions, and formed important dietary components of early civilizations. Although Pisum is a very small genus with two or three species, it is diverse and structured, reflecting taxonomy, ecogeography and breeding gene pools. This diversity has been preserved in collections totalling about 90,000 accessions. Core collections have been formed, facilitating phenotypic and agronomic evaluations. However, only 3% of ex situ collections are wild Pisum sp., with substantially larger diversity. The genomic resources allow initiation of association mapping, linking genetic diversity with trait manifestation. So far, only a small part of wild gene pools have been exploited in breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses. Current genomic knowledge and technologies can facilitate allele mining for novel traits and incorporation from wild Pisum sp. into elite domestic genetic backgrounds.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : Clarice Coyne
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064412

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

Lentil (Lens culinaris spp. culinaris) has a long history associated with the early civilizations 11,000 BP in southwestern Asia. The progenitor taxon is Lens culinaris spp. orientalis. The primary source of germplasm for lentil crop improvement is from the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria, and other ex situ national collections. Typical of many crop species, lentil experienced a genetic bottleneck during domestication. Fortunately, many biotic and abiotic stress resistances have been identified and accessed from the wild Lens taxon held ex situ to expand the genetic diversity available for crop improvement. Lentil crop wild relatives (CWR) represent

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : Lucia Lioi
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064368

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

In this chapter, we lead the reader through several topics related to common bean germplasm, including crop dissemination across the Old World, landraces developed by farmers, characterization and safeguard of germplasm. These topics are attracting a great deal of attention, especially in recent years, when the international community has become increasingly aware of the relevance of safeguarding plant genetic resources. Early studies were mainly aimed at performing exploratory analyses of agro-morphological traits, with the goal of improving yield and pest resistance. Moreover, phaseolin variation was studied to check the distribution of the two common bean gene pools. The recent development of DNA-based markers has allowed significant improvement in knowledge on genetic variation within the European germplasm, as well as the capacity to trace its divergence from the American germplasm. The different strategies applied to safeguard the European germplasm are described together with their drawbacks.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : Maalouf Fouad
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064399

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

Faba bean was first domesticated in the Near East about 10,000 BC. It is now grown worldwide on 2.56 million ha with a yield of 4.56 million tons. The traditional landraces are affected by the different biotic and abiotic stresses. Replacement of these low-yielding landraces by improved cultivars has resulted in a yield increase of 15.4kg/ha/year over the last 40 years. A reduction of the planted area from 7.5 million ha in 1961 to 2.56 million ha in 2010 and cultivation of improved cultivars are the major causes of genetic erosion. Gene banks around the world conserved more than 36,000 accessions. Diversity studies showed limited variation among currently grown cultivars, but high variation among different botanical groups has been recorded. The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas has undertaken desirable selection and breeding efforts to identify different sources of resistance and to develop improved varieties in collaboration with national agricultural research systems. A molecular approach was used in advanced research institutes to tag major genes/quantitative trait loci with molecular markers. However, more efforts are needed to saturate the genetic maps to facilitate marker-assisted breeding.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : Shiv Kumar
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064450

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important cool-season legume species with wide genetic diversity spread across the continents. With the climate change scenario it has emerged as a viable crop option for fragile agro-ecosystems, where successful cultivation of major crop species is apparently not difficult. However, grass pea seeds are known to have a neurotoxin known as β-N-oxalyl-l-α, β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). Its overconsumption as a staple food in an unbalanced diet for an extended period of 3–4 months can cause spastic paraparesis of the legs in human beings. Therefore, β-ODAP needs to be reduced through genetic means to a safe level for human consumption. Unfortunately, a paucity of efforts towards development of genetic and genomic resources for this species has hampered the progress in breeding low ODAP varieties in the past. Some progress has been made in recent years for collection, conservation, characterization, evaluation and utilization of Lathyrus genetic resources at the national and international levels, resulting in large ex situ collections in various gene banks of the world. These resources need to be systematically characterized and evaluated for genetic improvement through conventional and contemporary approaches. In spite of a large number of wild relatives with useful traits, no significant efforts have been made for alien gene transfer in grass pea. This chapter reviews the present status of genetic and genomic resources of Lathyrus and their use in current breeding programmes.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : Hari D. Upadhyaya
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064429

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh) is an important grain legume crop grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Though pigeon pea has a narrow genetic base, vast genetic resources are available for its genetic improvement. Evaluation of small subsets, such as core (10% of the whole collection) and mini-core collections (about 1% of the entire collection), has resulted in the identification of promising diverse sources for agronomic and nutrition-related traits as well as resistance/tolerance to important biotic/abiotic stresses for use in pigeon pea improvement programmes. Wild relatives of pigeon pea are the reservoir of many useful genes, including resistance/tolerance to diseases, insect pests and drought and good agronomic traits, and also have contributed to the development of cytoplasmic male sterility systems for pigeon pea improvement. Availability of genomic resources, including the genome sequence, will facilitate greater use of germplasm to develop new cultivars with a broad genetic base.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : R.K. Chahota
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064467

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

Horse gram is a pulse and fodder crop native to Southeast Asia and tropical Africa. India is the only country cultivating horse gram on a large acreage, where it is being used for human food. It is a versatile crop and can be grown from near sea level to 1800m. It is a drought-tolerant crop plant and can be grown successfully with low rainfall. Global efforts to conserve the horse gram germplasm are lacking, as the crop does not attract much notice. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) conserved only 35 accessions of Macrotyloma uniflorum in its gene bank. Protabase (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa Database), responsible for germplasm conservation for African countries, has only 21 accessions in the National Gene Bank of Kenya. Australian Tropical Crops and Forages Genetic Resources Centre, Biloela, Queensland has 38 accessions of horse gram. In India, the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi, is a nodal agency for the collection, conservation and documentation of horse gram germplasm; a total of 1627 accessions of horse gram are conserved in its gene bank. About 1161 accessions were systematically characterized and evaluated during 1999–2004 in different research institutions in India. No information on genomic resources is available for horse gram. However, the genetic information available for much researched related legume species could be useful in linkage map construction and for tagging and mapping of useful genes.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : Ousmane Boukar
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064405

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an indigenous legume to sub-Saharan Africa, is mainly grown in the dry savanna areas as an intercrop with millets, sorghum, groundnut and maize. Cowpea grains rich in protein are consumed in different forms in several parts of the tropics. The average grain yield of cowpea in West Africa is approximately 492kg/ha, which is much lower than its potential yields. This low productivity is due to a host of diseases, insects, pests, parasitic weeds, drought, poor soils and low plant population density in farmers’ fields. Ex situ collection of over 15,000 accessions of cowpea and wild Vigna germplasm from different parts of the world were assembled in the IITA gene bank. These genetic resources have been explored to identify new traits and to develop elite cowpea varieties. Many cowpea varieties with high yield potential have been developed and adopted by the farmers. Efforts are continuing to develop better performing varieties using conventional breeding procedures, while molecular tools are being developed to facilitate progress in cowpea breeding.

Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Legumes Book

Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Legumes


  • Author : Mohar Singh
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2014-10-28
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 215
  • ISBN 10 : 9788132220237

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Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Legumes Excerpt :

Grain legumes play significant and diverse role in the farming systems and provide nutrition security to the largely vegetarian and relatively poorer people around the world. These are ideal crops for achieving three simultaneous developmental goals viz. reducing poverty, improving human health and nutrition and enhancing ecosystem resilience. Globally, grain legumes are the second most important crop group next only to cereals but a large proportion of area of it is under rainfed-low input systems as compared to cereals contributing to lower yields. The other important factor responsible for reduced yield in grain legumes is the narrow genetic base of the present day pulse varieties. In order to break the yield barriers of these cultivars, new sources of genes/ alleles need to be identified and suitably incorporated into the adapted background. The information on various aspects of grain legume improvement although has been considerable in the recent past, these information are highly scattered and not available at one place. The present book consists of comprehensive and latest crop-wise information on important grain legumes of the world including their distribution, gene pool, systematics, status of genetic and genomic resources, production constraints, traits of importance, crop improvement methodologies - both conventional as well as contemporary and future strategies to be adopted for comprehensive grain legume improvement in various agro-ecological target areas of the globe. The chapters have been contributed by eminent crop experts from across the world engaged in research in their respective crops for the past several years thus providing a rare insight into the crop specific constraints and prospects drawing from their rich overall experience. The book therefore will be a useful source of information to the grain legume researchers, students, policy planners and developmental experts alike.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : H. Thomas Stalker
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064436

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

The genus Arachis has 80 diploid, aneuploid and tetraploid species that have been separated into nine sections. The cultivated peanut Arachis hypogaea L. is an allotetraploid that originated from the two diploids in section Arachis, and there has been no apparent introgression from related wild species since its origin. Systematic acquisition of wild and cultivated species began in the 1960s and has resulted in large collections of both Arachis species and A. hypogaea. However, additional germplasm is needed to fill in gaps for several A. hypogaea botanical varieties, and large areas in South America remain unexplored for Arachis species. The cultivated germplasm collection has been evaluated for several diseases, but many useful traits have not been assessed in the germplasm collections. Significantly higher levels of disease and insect resistances are found in the Arachis species, but introgression is difficult and very slow due to ploidy and genomic differentiation. Progress has been made in recent years for utilizing wild species genetic resources, including development of several cultivars.

Lentils Book

Lentils


  • Author : Mohar Singh
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2018-09-15
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 246
  • ISBN 10 : 0128135220

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Lentils Excerpt :

Lentils: Potential Resources for Enhancing Genetic Gains describes the evolutionary aspects and agronomic potential of this important pulse with emphasis placed on wide hybridization, including molecular aspects and future breeding strategies. The existing variability among cultivated germplasm has been exploited to reach a desirable level of productivity. However, to attain further breakthroughs in increasing yield and improving stability in future cultivars, new sources of genes/alleles need to be identified and incorporated into cultivated varieties. This book provides specific use information, including wild lentil germplasm utilization, thus allowing for the selection of transgressive interspecific recombinants that can be adapted to specific environments. Identifies breeding resources and the agronomic value assessed for specific traits of interest Presents marker assisted breeding work and genomic resources Describes strategies for wild lentils using wide hybridization Features key breeding strategies

Legumes in the Omic Era Book

Legumes in the Omic Era


  • Author : Sanjeev Gupta
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-11-19
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 348
  • ISBN 10 : 9781461483700

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Legumes in the Omic Era Excerpt :

Legumes in the Omic Era provides a timely review of recent advances in legume genomics research and application. In this post-genomic era enormous amount of biological information is available which could be of huge potential use for crop improvement applications. This aspect of genomics assisted plant breeding is focused throughout the book for all the important grain legume crops. Role of functional genomics and importance of bioinformatics tools in present day genomics and molecular breeding research is also discussed in detail. Use of molecular tools for nutritional fortification of grain legume is briefly presented. A chapter also been contributed on fungal disease resistance to elucidate potential application of genomic tools in molecular breeding of grain legume species. The book contains fifteen chapters contributed by 50 scientists from different countries who are actively involved in analyzing and improving particular legume genome. This book will serve as reference resource to legumes researchers for use of genome information in improvement of major legume crops. Dr Sanjeev Gupta is Principal Scientist/Project Coordinator-All India Coordinated Research Project on Vigna Crops at Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR), Kanpur. He has more than two decades of research experience in grain legume breeding and developed a number of high yielding cultivars in grain legumes. He is authored numerous research papers published in peer-reviewed journals and edited several books in plant breeding aspects. He was the Organizing Secretary of the International Grain Legume Conference, 2009 held in the Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India. He has travelled across the continents to present his research several times. He is recipient of several awards for his research and literary contributions Dr. Nagasamy Nadarajan is the Director of the Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR), Kanpur. He has more than three decades of teaching and research experience

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : Ishwari Singh Bisht
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064443

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

The Asian Vigna in the subgenus Ceratotropis, with several recognized species distributed across Asia, constitute an economically important group of cultivated and wild species for which a rich diversity occurs in India and other parts of Asia. Taxonomically, cultigen and conspecific wild forms are recognized in all major cultivated Asiatic pulses, mung bean (V. radiata), urd bean (V. mungo), rice bean (V. umbellata) and azuki bean (V. angularis) except for moth bean (V. aconitifolia), which has retained a wild-type morphology. The cultivated species V. radiata and V. mungo are of Indian origin. The domestication of V. aconitifolia is also apparently Indian, whereas that of V. angularis and V. umbellata is Far Eastern. A comprehensive review on origin,distribution, diversity, evaluation and utilization including genomic resources of Asian Vigna species is described in the chapter. The compilation will be a valuable reference for agriculturists, conservationists, taxonomists and other researchers interested in the genetic and genomic resources management of Asian Vigna species.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement


  • Author : Shivali Sharma
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128064382

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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Excerpt :

Chickpea is an important protein-rich crop with considerable diversity present among 44 annual Cicer species. A large collection of chickpea germplasm including wild Cicer species has been conserved in different gene banks globally. However, the effective and efficient utilization of these resources is required to develop new cultivars with a broad genetic base. Using core and mini-core collections, chickpea researchers have identified diverse germplasm possessing various beneficial traits that are now being used in chickpea breeding. Further, for chickpea improvement, the genus Cicer harbours alleles/genes for tolerance/resistance to various abiotic and biotic stresses as well as for agronomic and nutrition-related traits. Recent advances in plant biotechnology have resulted in developing large number of markers specific to chickpea in addition to technological breakthrough in developing high-throughput genotyping platforms for unlocking the genetic potential available in germplasm collections.