Human Population Genetic Research in Developing Countries Book

Human Population Genetic Research in Developing Countries


  • Author : Yue Wang
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2013-11-12
  • Genre: Law
  • Pages : 255
  • ISBN 10 : 9781135047108

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Human Population Genetic Research in Developing Countries Excerpt :

Human population genetic research (HPGR) seeks to identify the diversity and variation of the human genome and how human group and individual genetic diversity has developed. This book asks whether developing countries are well prepared for the ethical and legal conduct of human population genetic research, with specific regard to vulnerable target group protection. The book highlights particular issues raised by genetic research on populations as a whole, such as the potential harm specific groups may suffer in genetic research, and the capacity for current frameworks of Western developed countries to provide adequate protections for these target populations. Using The People’s Republic of China as a key example, Yue Wang argues that since the target groups of HPGR are almost always from isolated and rural areas of developing countries, the ethical and legal frameworks for human subject protection need to be reconsidered in order to eliminate, or at least reduce, the vulnerability of those groups. While most discussion in this field focuses on the impact of genetic research on individuals, this book breaks new ground in exploring how the interests of target groups are also seriously implicated in genetic work. In evaluating current regulations concerning prevention of harm to vulnerable groups, the book also puts forward an alternative model for group protection in the context of human population genetic research in developing countries. The book will be of great interest to students and academics of medical law, ethics, and the implications of genetic research.

Human Population Genetic Research in Developing Countries Book

Human Population Genetic Research in Developing Countries


  • Author : Yue Wang
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2013-11-12
  • Genre: Law
  • Pages : 255
  • ISBN 10 : 9781135047115

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Human Population Genetic Research in Developing Countries Excerpt :

Human population genetic research (HPGR) seeks to identify the diversity and variation of the human genome and how human group and individual genetic diversity has developed. This book asks whether developing countries are well prepared for the ethical and legal conduct of human population genetic research, with specific regard to vulnerable target group protection. The book highlights particular issues raised by genetic research on populations as a whole, such as the potential harm specific groups may suffer in genetic research, and the capacity for current frameworks of Western developed countries to provide adequate protections for these target populations. Using The People’s Republic of China as a key example, Yue Wang argues that since the target groups of HPGR are almost always from isolated and rural areas of developing countries, the ethical and legal frameworks for human subject protection need to be reconsidered in order to eliminate, or at least reduce, the vulnerability of those groups. While most discussion in this field focuses on the impact of genetic research on individuals, this book breaks new ground in exploring how the interests of target groups are also seriously implicated in genetic work. In evaluating current regulations concerning prevention of harm to vulnerable groups, the book also puts forward an alternative model for group protection in the context of human population genetic research in developing countries. The book will be of great interest to students and academics of medical law, ethics, and the implications of genetic research.

Equitable Access to Human Biological Resources in Developing Countries Book

Equitable Access to Human Biological Resources in Developing Countries


  • Author : Roger Scarlin Chennells
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-07-17
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 197
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319197258

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Equitable Access to Human Biological Resources in Developing Countries Excerpt :

The main question explored by the book is: How can cross-border access to human genetic resources, such as blood or DNA samples, be governed in such a way as to achieve equity for vulnerable populations in developing countries? The book situates the field of genomic and genetic research within global health and research frameworks, describing the concerns that have been raised about the potential unfairness in exchanges during recent decades. Access to and sharing in the benefits of human biological resources are aspects not regulated by any international legal framework such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, which applies only to the exchange of plants, animals and microorganisms, as well as to associated traditional knowledge. Examples of genetic research perceived as exploitative are provided in order to illustrate the legal vacuum concerning the global governance of human genetic resources. The main conclusions drawn from the legal and ethical analysis are: • Benefit sharing is crucial in order to avoid the exploitation of developing countries in human genetic research. • With functioning research ethics committees, undue inducement is less of a concern in genetic research than in other areas of medical research (e.g. clinical trials). • Concerns remain over research involving indigenous populations; accordingly, recommendations are provided. In drawing these conclusions, the book addresses in detail a highly pressing topic in global bioethics and international law. In this regard, it combines bioethical arguments with jurisprudence, in particular with reference to the law of equity and the legal concepts of duress (coercion), unconscionable dealing, and undue inducement.

Evaluating Human Genetic Diversity Book

Evaluating Human Genetic Diversity


  • Author : National Research Council
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 1998-01-19
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 102
  • ISBN 10 : 0309184746

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Evaluating Human Genetic Diversity Excerpt :

This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical, organizational, and policy issues surrounding such research. Evaluating Human Genetic Diversity discusses the potential uses of such collection, such as providing insight into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.

Routledge Handbook of Genomics  Health and Society Book

Routledge Handbook of Genomics Health and Society


  • Author : Sahra Gibbon
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2018-04-17
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 316
  • ISBN 10 : 9781315451671

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Routledge Handbook of Genomics Health and Society Excerpt :

The Handbook provides an essential resource at the interface of Genomics, Health and Society, and forms a crucial research tool for both new students and established scholars across biomedicine and social sciences. Building from and extending the first Routledge Handbook of Genetics and Society, the book offers a comprehensive introduction to pivotal themes within the field, an overview of the current state of the art knowledge on genomics, science and society, and an outline of emerging areas of research. Key themes addressed include the way genomic based DNA technologies have become incorporated into diverse arenas of clinical practice and research whilst also extending beyond the clinic; the role of genomics in contemporary ‘bioeconomies’; how challenges in the governance of medical genomics can both reconfigure and stabilise regulatory processes and jurisdictional boundaries; how questions of diversity and justice are situated across different national and transnational terrains of genomic research; and how genomics informs – and is shaped by – developments in fields such as epigenetics, synthetic biology, stem cell, microbial and animal model research. Presenting cutting edge research from leading social science scholars, the Handbook provides a unique and important contribution to the field. It brings a rich and varied cross disciplinary social science perspective that engages with both the history and contemporary context of genomics and ‘post-genomics’, and considers the now global and transnational terrain in which these developments are unfolding.

Global Clinical Trials for Alzheimer   s Disease Book

Global Clinical Trials for Alzheimer s Disease


  • Author : Sidney A. Spector
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-08-28
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128070550

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Global Clinical Trials for Alzheimer s Disease Excerpt :

The burgeoning field of pharmacogenomics holds the promise to uncover genetic risk factors for both rare and common diseases, identify genetically based inter-individual responses to medicines, and enrich clinical trials with more genetically homogeneous groups, with the overarching goal to provide safer and more effective medicines to individuals and populations. With the sequencing of the human genome at the turn of the twentieth century, this last decade has seen an explosion in the development of technologies and methods to advance our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of disease and how individuals respond to medicines. In the field of Alzheimer’s disease research, pharmacogenomics has provided insight into the genetic complexity of this common disorder, confirming ApoE carrier status as a genetic determinant of risk for this disease, as well as identifying many other possible gene candidates. Recognition of global genetic diversity, however, requires that these methods be applied to different ethnic and racial groups throughout the world. Collaborations between academia, non-government organizations, and the pharmaceutical industry under the guidance and regulation of government-directed institutes and initiatives have been created in underdeveloped and developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America to identify unique genetic variation that will guide the development and use of medicines in these populations. Though each local population and government has its own set of economic, social, legal, regulatory and ethical challenges, the overarching goal in this endeavor is the translation of pharmacogenomic knowledge into the development of safer and more effective medicines for patients throughout the world.

Revisiting the Regulation of Human Fertilisation and Embryology Book

Revisiting the Regulation of Human Fertilisation and Embryology


  • Author : Kirsty Horsey
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2015-06-19
  • Genre: Law
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN 10 : 9781317664819

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Revisiting the Regulation of Human Fertilisation and Embryology Excerpt :

The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008 was a major update to the UK’s laws on the use and regulation of reproductive technology and assisted reproduction. Since the enactment of the new law, the sector’s regulatory body, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), has also consulted on various related topics including barriers to egg and sperm donation in the UK, multiple births/single embryo transfer and using IVF technology to prevent mitochondrial disease. This book critically considers recent developments in human fertilisation legislation, asking whether the 2008 Act has achieved its stated aim of being fit for purpose. Bringing together a range of international experts, the book evaluates the fresh risks and challenges emerging from both established and existing technologies and techniques in the field of human fertilisation and embryology, as well as offering valuable insights into the social and regulatory challenges that lie ahead. Key topics include problems with DIY assisted conception; the lack of reform in respect of the regulation of surrogacy arrangements; and mitochondrial DNA transfer. As a review of the status of assisted reproduction legislation, this book will be of great use and interest to students, researchers and practitioners in medical law, bioethics, medicine and child welfare.

Autonomy and Pregnancy Book

Autonomy and Pregnancy


  • Author : Samantha Halliday
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2016-05-05
  • Genre: Law
  • Pages : 249
  • ISBN 10 : 9781135329938

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Autonomy and Pregnancy Excerpt :

Technology has come to dominate the modern experience of pregnancy and childbirth, but instead of empowering pregnant women, technology has been used to identify the foetus as a second patient characterised as a distinct entity with its own needs and interests. Often, foetal and the woman’s interests will be aligned, though in legal and medical discourses the two ‘patients’ are frequently framed as antagonists with conflicting interests. This book focuses upon the permissibility of encroachment on the pregnant woman’s autonomy in the interests of the foetus. Drawing on the law in England & Wales, the United States of America and Germany, Samantha Halliday focuses on the tension between a pregnant woman’s autonomy and medical actions taken to protect the foetus, addressing circumstances in which courts have declared medical treatment lawful in the face of the pregnant woman’s refusal of consent. As a work which calls into question the understanding of autonomy in prenatal medical care, this book will be of great use and interest to students, researchers and practitioners in medical law, comparative law, bioethics, and human rights.

Pioneering Healthcare Law Book

Pioneering Healthcare Law


  • Author : Catherine Stanton
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2015-10-16
  • Genre: Law
  • Pages : 308
  • ISBN 10 : 9781317506003

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Pioneering Healthcare Law Excerpt :

This book celebrates Professor Margaret Brazier’s outstanding contribution to the field of healthcare law and bioethics. It examines key aspects developed in Professor Brazier’s agenda-setting body of work, with contributions being provided by leading experts in the field from the UK, Australia, the US and continental Europe. They examine a range of current and future challenges for healthcare law and bioethics, representing state-of-the-art scholarship in the field. The book is organised into five parts. Part I discusses key principles and themes in healthcare law and bioethics. Part II examines the dynamics of the patient–doctor relationship, in particular the role of patients. Part III explores legal and ethical issues relating to the human body. Part IV discusses the regulation of reproduction, and Part V examines the relationship between the criminal law and the healthcare process. Offering a collaborative review of key and innovative themes in the field, the book will be of great interest and use to academics and students working in healthcare law and bioethics, and those working in health policy, law and regulation at both national and international levels. Chapter 10 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF at www.tandfebooks.com/openaccess. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license.

Critically Impaired Infants and End of Life Decision Making Book

Critically Impaired Infants and End of Life Decision Making


  • Author : Neera Bhatia
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2015-06-05
  • Genre: Law
  • Pages : 222
  • ISBN 10 : 9781317573555

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Critically Impaired Infants and End of Life Decision Making Excerpt :

Decisions to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment are contentious, and offer difficult moral dilemmas to both medical practitioners and the judiciary. This issue is exacerbated when the patient is unable to exercise autonomy and is entirely dependent on the will of others. This book focuses on the legal and ethical complexities surrounding end of life decisions for critically impaired and extremely premature infants. Neera Bhatia explores decisions to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment from critically impaired infants and addresses the controversial question, which lives are too expensive to treat? Bringing to bear such key issues as clinical guidance, public awareness, and resource allocation, the book provides a rational approach to end of life decision making, where decisions to withdraw or withhold treatment may trump other competing interests. The book will be of great interest and use to scholars and students of bioethics, medical law, and medical practitioners.

The Legitimacy of Medical Treatment Book

The Legitimacy of Medical Treatment


  • Author : Sara Fovargue
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2015-08-11
  • Genre: Law
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN 10 : 9781317591726

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The Legitimacy of Medical Treatment Excerpt :

Whenever the legitimacy of a new or ethically contentious medical intervention is considered, a range of influences will determine whether the treatment becomes accepted as lawful medical treatment. The development and introduction of abortion, organ donation, gender reassignment, and non-therapeutic cosmetic surgery have, for example, all raised ethical, legal, and clinical issues. This book examines the various factors that legitimatise a medical procedure. Bringing together a range of internationally and nationally recognised academics from law, philosophy, medicine, health, economics, and sociology, the book explores the notion of a treatment, practice, or procedure being proper medical treatment, and considers the range of diverse factors which might influence the acceptance of a particular procedure as appropriate in the medical context. Contributors address such issues as clinical judgement and professional autonomy, the role of public interest, and the influence of resource allocation in decision-making. In doing so, the book explores how the law, the medical profession, and the public interact in determining whether a new or ethically contentious procedure should be regarded as legitimate. This book will be of interest and use to researchers and students of bioethics, medical law, criminal law, and the sociology of medicine. Chapter 6 of this book 'Family perspectives on proper medical treatment for people in prolonged vegetative and minimally conscious states' by Celia Kitzinger and Jenny Kitzinger is available under an open access CC BY NC ND license and can be viewed at: http://preview.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/prevqa/NBK199156/ .

Genomics and Health in the Developing World Book

Genomics and Health in the Developing World


  • Author : Dhavendra Kumar
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2012-06-14
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 1501
  • ISBN 10 : 9780195374759

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Genomics and Health in the Developing World Excerpt :

This book is designed to be the first major text to discuss advances in medical genetics in the developing world.

Creation and Governance of Human Genetic Research Databases Book

Creation and Governance of Human Genetic Research Databases


  • Author : OECD
  • Publisher : OECD Publishing
  • Release Date : 2006-10-25
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 160
  • ISBN 10 : 9789264028531

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Creation and Governance of Human Genetic Research Databases Excerpt :

Summarises proceedings of a conference looking at examples of human genetic research databases, how they are established, how they are managed and governed, how they might be commercialised, and what the policy considerations might be.