Implications of the Blood Brain Barrier and Its Manipulation Book

Implications of the Blood Brain Barrier and Its Manipulation


  • Author : E.A. Neuwelt
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-11-11
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 434
  • ISBN 10 : 9781461307013

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Implications of the Blood Brain Barrier and Its Manipulation Excerpt :

Understanding the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and recogniz ing its clinical relevance require a concert of scientific disciplines applied from a view point of integrative physiology rather than from only molecular or analytical approaches. It is this broad scope that is emphasized in this book. In my opinion, four original contributions define the field as it exists today. The first, a monograph by Broman,1 entitled The Permeability of the Cerebrospinal Vessels in Normal and Pathological Conditions, was the model for many subsequent clinical and 3 experimental studies on BBB pathology. Second, experiments by Davson, summarized in his book entitled Physiology of the Ocular and Cerebrospinal Fluids, indicated that passive entry of nonelectrolytes into brain from blood is governed largely by their lipid 4 solubility. This research supported the original suggestion by Gesell and Hertzman that cerebral membranes have the semipermeability properties of cell membranes. The modem era of the barrier was introduced with the 1965 paper by Crone,2 entitled "Facilitated transfer of glucose from blood to brain tissue. " This paper identified stereospecific, facilitated transport of glucose as part of a system of regulatory barrier properties at a time when only a barrier to passive diffusion had been contemplated. Finally, the 1967 paper by Reese and Kamovsky, 11 entitled "Fine structural localization of a blood-brain barrier to exogenous peroxidase," sited the barrier at the continuous layer of cerebrovascular endothelial cells, which are connected by tight junctions.

Implications of the Blood Brain Barrier and Its Manipulation Book

Implications of the Blood Brain Barrier and Its Manipulation


  • Author : E.A. Neuwelt
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 1989-01-31
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 668
  • ISBN 10 : 0306426374

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Implications of the Blood Brain Barrier and Its Manipulation Excerpt :

As a neurologist and student of the microvasculature, I find great pleasure in introducing this treatise. Presented here is a view of brain pathophysiology and therapy from the perspective of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Virtually every disease process that affects the brain-traumatic, neoplastic, infectious, inflammatory, toxic, metabolic, degenera tive, vascular, and epileptic-affects the BBB. Damage to this homeostatic system often leads to disruption of the composition and volume of brain fluid compartments, thereby contributing to neurologic symptoms and pathology. Furthermore, in disorders in which the integrity of the barrier is not breached, its normal restrictive nature may limit therapeu tic approaches. For example, the barrier appears to function normally in Parkinson dis ease, but its ability to compensate for striatal dopamine depletion is in part determined by the activity of transporters and enzymes operative in the brain microvasculature. of antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antineoplastic agents, and neurolep Similarly, the choice tics requires attention to these drugs' interaction with the BBB. Thus, the barrier inter faces with virtually all nervous system diseases and therapies. Future brain treatments with regulatory peptides, immune mediators, and gene components will require selective methods to deliver these agents to specific brain regions. The second volume of this text successfully provides a thorough review of BBB function and failure in a variety of clinical situations.

New Concepts of a Blood   Brain Barrier Book

New Concepts of a Blood Brain Barrier


  • Author : D.J. Begley
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-11-11
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 332
  • ISBN 10 : 9781489910547

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New Concepts of a Blood Brain Barrier Excerpt :

The scientific contribution of Mike Bradbury to the study of the blood-brain barrier is considerable and wide-ranging, starting with his M.D. thesis in 1962 and still continuing today. The varied spectrum of topics relating to the blood-brain barrier presented in this volume and the many geographical locations from which both speakers and participants gathered to attend the symposium are a fitting testament both to Mike's wide-spread influence in the field and to the esteem in which he is held. When we first had the idea of afestschrift to mark Mike's retirement as Professor of Physiology at King's College London and the beginning of a new vie libre as scientist and yachtsman the plan was initially for a gathering of all of the many colleagues, collaborators and students who had worked with him over the years. However what we had not taken into account was the closeness of the international community of workers in the field, the widespread influence that Mike had wielded and the speed with which word would spread. We should have anticipated all three. The final outcome was an excellent symposium with the majority of the world's key workers either contributing or attending. We hope that this volume presents an adequate record of the meeting.

Models for Assessing Drug Absorption and Metabolism Book

Models for Assessing Drug Absorption and Metabolism


  • Author : Ronald T. Borchardt
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-06-29
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 444
  • ISBN 10 : 9781489918635

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Models for Assessing Drug Absorption and Metabolism Excerpt :

Pharmaceutical scientists in industry and academia will appreciate this single reference for its detailed experimental procedures for conducting biopharmaceutical studies. This well-illustrated guide allows them to establish, validate, and implement commonly used in situ and in vitro model systems. Chapters provide ready access to these methodologies for studies of the intestinal, buccal, nasal and respiratory, vaginal, ocular, and dermal epithelium as well as the endothelial and elimination barriers.

Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function Book

Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function


  • Author : Daniela Jezová
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-04-09
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 520
  • ISBN 10 : 9781468457995

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Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function Excerpt :

During the past several decades, much research effort has gone into the elucidation of the role of neuroendocrine systems as secretory and metabolic regulators of cells of a variety of organs and structures, including the testes, ovaries, adrenals, thyroid, pituitary gland, and mammary glands. However, the role of cells comprising such organs and structures in the modulation of neuroendocrine processes has received considerably less is generally less well appreciated. attention and Nonetheless, it is important that we understand the actions on neuroendocrine systems of substances that reach the brain by way of the vasculature, including hormones, cytokines, toxins, amino acids, drugs, and similar agents. In order to analyze the present state of knowledge on this topic, experimental scientists and clinicians, whose shared interests include actions of circulating agents on the brain, met at a satellite symposium of the XXXI International Congress of Physiological Sciences. This symposium, entitled Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function, was held in Smolenice Castle, Czechoslovakia, June 26-July 1, 1989, and reviews delivered at this symposium as invited presentations are published in this volume. Presentations given as free communications have been published separately and are available in Endocrinologia Experimentalis 24: 1-273, 1990.

Frontiers in Cerebral Vascular Biology Book

Frontiers in Cerebral Vascular Biology


  • Author : Lester R. Drewes
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 306
  • ISBN 10 : 9781461529200

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Frontiers in Cerebral Vascular Biology Excerpt :

During the past three decades, the cerebral vasculature and its role in blood-brain transport has been an increasingly active area of investigation and learning, particularly from an anatomical and physiological point of view. However, much less is known at the molecular and cellular level about the blood-brain barrier especially regarding the macromolecules responsible for transport, the roles played by vascular wall components (endothelial cell, pericyte, smooth muscle, basement membrane), and the mechanisms regulating brain vascular-specific protein expression and their molecular alterations during development and disease. Fundamental questions still unanswered include: What are the molecular constituents of brain endothelial cell tight junctions? What are the membrane proteins responsible for transport of specific substrates? What are the molecular signals that cause glucose transporter gene expression to be 20 to 100 times greater in brain endothelial cells in vivo than in vitro? What roles do pericytes, smooth muscle cells and basement membrane have in establishing or maintaining blood-brain transport characteristics? Are brain vascular transport systems responsible for edema following injury? Are transporter systems regulated via receptor-mediated events? Do hormones or neuromodulators regulate transporter expression? What is the molecular mechanism by which plasma proteins enter the extravascular space? Are transporters asymmetrically distributed between the luminal and abluminal endothelial cell membranes? Can prodrugs or pharmacologic agents be designed as substrate analogs and be delivered to the central nervous system via existing transporters or receptors? Can new and beneficial transporters be introduced into the brain vasculature?

Delivery Strategies for Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapeutics Book

Delivery Strategies for Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapeutics


  • Author : Saghir Akhtar
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2017-07-28
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN 10 : 9781351366137

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Delivery Strategies for Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapeutics Excerpt :

With contributions from leading experts, this book is the first to focus solely on addressing the problems and reviewing the strategies currently being used to improve the delivery of antisense nucleic acids. Important delivery issues, such as improving biological stability, improving cell-specific targeting and cellular uptake, manipulating subcellular distribution and producing liposomal delivery systems for antisense agents are comprehensively covered in this volume. This book links review-type articles with contributions that contain exciting never-before-published data on the cellular delivery of oligonucleotides. It stimulates reading for both established researchers and newcomers to the antisense field.

Progress in Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer Book

Progress in Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer


  • Author : B.J. Allen
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 668
  • ISBN 10 : 9781461533849

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Progress in Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer Excerpt :

Despite the many advances made in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, the mortality rate is still about half that of the incidence rate. However, the odds are not evenly distributed. Prognosis for some cancers is good, but for others, few patients will survive 12 months. This latter group of cancers is characterised by a proclivity to disseminate malignant cells in the host organ. The degree of surgery possible may be limited by the critical nature of the organ, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy are of palliative value only. In some cases systemic metastases occur, but in other cases, failure to achieve local control results in death. First among these cancers are the high grade brain tumours, astrocytoma 3,4 and glioblastoma multiforme. Local control of these tumours should lead to cure. Other cancers melanoma metastatic to the brain, for which a useful palliative therapy is not yet available, and pancreatic cancer for which localised control at an early stage could bring about improved prognosis. Patients with these cancers have little grounds for hope. Our primary objective is to reverse this situation with Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). The purpose of this fourth symposium is to hasten the day whereby patients with these cancers can reasonably hope for substantial remissions. The first symposium on NCT was held in Boston in 1983, followed by Tokyo in 1985 and Bremen, Germany in 1988.

The Blood Brain Barrier and Drug Delivery to the CNS Book

The Blood Brain Barrier and Drug Delivery to the CNS


  • Author : Michael Bradbury
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2000-05-16
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN 10 : 0824703944

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The Blood Brain Barrier and Drug Delivery to the CNS Excerpt :

This timely and compact monograph addresses how to determine drug permeability across the blood-brain barrier more effectively. Focusing on the physiological mechanisms that influence the passage of agents into the brain, the book covers the latest research on the blood-brain barrier, the current problems of and solutions to drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS), existing strategies, and prospects for future research. Avoid excessive in vivo experimentation and utilize timesaving in vitro techniques. A concise reference with reviews from nearly 40 international specialists in diverse fields, The Blood-Brain Barrier and Drug Delivery to the CNS assesses the properties of the blood-brain barrier to determine and measure drug permeability in animals and humans presents techniques to predict successful drug uptake through in vitro systems or by computation of physicochemical parameters examines the multidrug resistance protein P-glycoprotein as a natural transporter analyzes current drug designs to known requirements for transport looks at drug delivery systems for the brain and much more! Densely packed with over 800 literature references, drawings, photographs, x-rays, tables, and equations, The Blood-Brain Barrier and Drug Delivery to the CNS is a vital addition to the bookshelves of biochemists, pharmacists, clinical and research pharmacologists, neuroscientists and neurologists, and graduate and medical school students in these disciplines.

The Blood Brain Barrier  BBB  Book

The Blood Brain Barrier BBB


  • Author : Gert Fricker
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2014-10-24
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 163
  • ISBN 10 : 9783662437872

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The Blood Brain Barrier BBB Excerpt :

Medicinal chemistry is both science and art. The science of medicinal chemistry offers mankind one of its best hopes for improving the quality of life. The art of medicinal chemistry continues to challenge its practitioners with the need for both intuition and experience to discover new drugs. Hence sharing the experience of drug research is uniquely beneficial to the field of medicinal chemistry. Drug research requires interdisciplinary team-work at the interface between chemistry, biology and medicine. Therefore, the topic-related series Topics in Medicinal Chemistry covers all relevant aspects of drug research, e.g. pathobiochemistry of diseases, identification and validation of (emerging) drug targets, structural biology, drugability of targets, drug design approaches, chemogenomics, synthetic chemistry including combinatorial methods, bioorganic chemistry, natural compounds, high-throughput screening, pharmacological in vitro and in vivo investigations, drug-receptor interactions on the molecular level, structure-activity relationships, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicology and pharmacogenomics. In general, special volumes are edited by well known guest editors.

An Introduction to the Blood brain Barrier Book

An Introduction to the Blood brain Barrier


  • Author : Davson
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 1993
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 335
  • ISBN 10 : 0849377617

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An Introduction to the Blood brain Barrier Excerpt :

This book is devoted to exploring the complexities of the blood-brain barrier. The book begins by reviewing the historical experiments that led to the concept of a barrier protecting the brain from variations in the blood. Transport kinetics and carrier-mediated processes are described, and the mechanism by which molecules can cross the barrier is discussed. Ways in which the barrier can be disrupted and opened are covered as well. Subsequent chapters in the book describe the transport of glucose and amino acids into the central nervous systems, cover recent findings by which peptides and proteins are able to gain entry or are excluded from the brain, and analyze models that can be used for investigating how the blood-brain barrier can be disordered in neurological disease processes.