Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids


  • Author : Richard Smith Jr.
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release Date : 2013-12-08
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 752
  • ISBN 10 : 9780080931302

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Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Excerpt :

This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols Book

Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols


  • Author : Tony Clifford
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2000
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 253
  • ISBN 10 : 9781592590308

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Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols Excerpt :

Because of their unique properties and relatively low environmental impact, supercritical fluids have proven highly useful in the extraction and separation of organic compounds, in particle production, as reaction media, and for the destruction of toxic waste. In Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols, experienced practitioners present detailed accounts of a wide variety of techniques using supercritical fluids. These range from the supercritical fluid extraction methods for numerous compounds to the ninhydrin staining of fingerprints on checks and banknotes, and from the detection of impurities in pharmaceuticals to a wide variety of applications throughout environmental and food science, and across analytical, clinical, and medicinal chemistry. Detailed step-by-step instructions enable users to apply these essential techniques successfully the first time, and include modifications that permit their effective adaptation to novel experimental or process conditions. For each application, additional discussions provide needed background information, lists of materials and apparatus, and advice about common pitfalls and how to avoid them. Versatile and comprehensive, Supercritical Methods and Protocols offers both novice and experienced investigators and laboratory analysts powerful tools that will enable successful biological and bioprocess analyses and optimizations today.

Gas Extraction Book

Gas Extraction


  • Author : Gerd Brunner
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-06-29
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 387
  • ISBN 10 : 9783662073803

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Gas Extraction Excerpt :

Application of compressed gases as solvents has found widespread interest within the scientific community. Its processes have industrial applications. Gas Extraction deals with the possibilities of supercritical gases as solvents for separation processes. The volume combines physico-chemical aspects with chemical engineering methods. The text generalizes as far as possible, and treats examples in detail. Gas Extraction covers, for the first time, the subject in textbook form. Most of the examples provide new results that will be helpful for practicing scientists, engineers, and students who want to make use of the techniques.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids


  • Author : Richard Smith
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-12-08
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 752
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128076873

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Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Excerpt :

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids


  • Author : Richard Smith
  • Publisher : Elsevier Science
  • Release Date : 2013
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 729
  • ISBN 10 : 0444522158

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Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Excerpt :

This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Supercritical Fluids Book

Supercritical Fluids


  • Author : E. Kiran
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-11-11
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 796
  • ISBN 10 : 9789401582957

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Supercritical Fluids Excerpt :

Supercritical fluids which are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density, are gaining increasing importance as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the pressure, or more strictly the density, the properties of these fluids are customized and manipulated for the particular process at hand, be it a physical transformation, such as separation or solvation, or a chemical transformation, such as a reaction or reactive extraction. Supercritical fluids, however, differ from both gases and liquids in many respects. In order to properly understand and describe their properties, it is necessary to know the implications of their nearness to criticality, to be aware of the complex types of phase separation (including solid phases) that occur when the components of the fluid mixture are very different from each other, and to develop theories that can cope with the large differences in molecular size and shape of the supercritical solvent and the solutes that are present.

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies Book

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies


  • Author : Igor Pioro
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2020-05-20
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN 10 : 9781838807085

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Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies Excerpt :

Using SuperCritical Fluids (SCFs) in various processes is not new, because Mother Nature has been processing minerals in aqueous solutions at critical and supercritical pressures for billions of years. Somewhere in the 20th century, SCFs started to be used in various industries as working fluids, coolants, chemical agents, etc. Written by an international team of experts and complete with the latest research, development, and design, Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies is a unique technical book, completely dedicated to modern and advanced applications of supercritical fluids in various industries.Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies provides engineers and specialists in various industries dealing with SCFs as well as researchers, scientists, and students of the corresponding departments with a comprehensive overview of the current status, latest trends and developments of these technologies.Dr Igor Pioro is a professor at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada, and the Founding Editor of the ASME Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction and its Use in Chromatographic Sample Preparation Book

Supercritical Fluid Extraction and its Use in Chromatographic Sample Preparation


  • Author : S.A. Westwood
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 170
  • ISBN 10 : 9789401121644

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Supercritical Fluid Extraction and its Use in Chromatographic Sample Preparation Excerpt :

by Professor D. E. Games, Mass Spectrometry Research Unit, University College of Swansea Sample preparation can be viewed as occupying a Cinderella role in analytical science. However, the quality of sample preparation plays a key role in high In the past decade, there has been quality analysis and deserves higher stature. considerable interest in the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as an alternative to conventional procedures for the preparation of samples for ana lysis. The driving force for this development is the need for automated, sim pler, faster, non-destructive and selective methods for extraction, preferably using non-toxic extraction media which are easily disposed of. Utilization of supercritical fluids for extraction fulfils these requirements because of their unique physical chemical properties and usually low toxicity. Selectivity can be achieved by suitable selection of pressure (density), temperature and modi fier conditions which enable solvating power to be varied. The high diffusivity of supercritical fluids provides rapid sample penetration and extraction. Use of fluids with low critical temperatures enables extraction to be conducted under mild thermal conditions ensuring that thermally labile compounds do not decompose. The technique can be used off-line, and the extracts analysed by appropriate techniques, or it can be used on-line, by coupling with a variety of chromatographic techniques. These can then, if necessary, be coupled fur ther with spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared, ultra violet or mass spectrometry, to provide specific identification or structural information.

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes Book

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes


  • Author : Gerd Brunner
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2014-04-04
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 604
  • ISBN 10 : 9780444594181

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Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes Excerpt :

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes presents an overview on the properties and applications of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. It combines fundamentals with production process aspects. Water is an extraordinary substance. At elevated temperatures (and pressures) its properties change dramatically due to the modifications of the molecular structure of bulk water that varies from a stable three-dimensional network, formed by hydrogen bonds at low and moderate temperatures, to an assembly of separated polar water molecules at high and supercritical temperatures. With varying pressure and temperature, water is turned from a solvent for ionic species to a solvent for polar and non-polar substances. This variability and an enhanced reactivity of water have led to many practical applications and to even more research activities, related to such areas as energy transfer, extraction of functional molecules, unique chemical reactions, biomass conversion and fuel materials processing, destruction of dangerous compounds and recycling of useful ones, growth of monolithic crystals, and preparation of metallic nanoparticles. This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further information Summarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applications Compares process and reactor designs Evaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints

Chemical Synthesis Using Supercritical Fluids Book

Chemical Synthesis Using Supercritical Fluids


  • Author : Philip G. Jessop
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2008-07-11
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 500
  • ISBN 10 : 9783527613694

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Chemical Synthesis Using Supercritical Fluids Excerpt :

For 'better solutions' - this practical guide describes how to take advantage of supercritical fluids in chemical synthesis. Well-established in extractions and materials processing, supercritical fluids are becoming increasingly popular as media for modern chemical syntheses. Historically, the application of compressed gases has been restricted mainly to the production of bulk chemicals. In the last decade, however, research has turned to exploiting the unique properties of supercritical fluids for the synthesis of fine chemicals and specialized materials. Now that the necessary equipment is more readily available, the use of supercritical fluids should become more widespread in both laboratory and industrial scale syntheses. More than merely a concise introduction to the properties of supercritical fluids, here leading experts give a thorough, up-to-date account of chemistry in these alternative media. In-depth scientific commentary, detailed reaction protocols, descriptions of necessary equipment, and an outline of spectroscopic techniques add to the value of this handbook aimed at innovative synthetic chemists.

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and or Supercritical Fluids Book

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and or Supercritical Fluids


  • Author : Can Erkey
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2021-12-08
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 282
  • ISBN 10 : 9780444640901

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Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and or Supercritical Fluids Excerpt :

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and/or Supercritical Fluids: Methods, Fundamentals and Modeling offers a comprehensive review of the current status of research, development and insights on promising future directions, covering the synthesis of nanostructured materials using supercritical fluid-based processes. The book presents fundamental aspects such as high-pressure phase behavior of complex mixtures, thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption from supercritical solutions, mechanisms of particle formation phenomena in supercritical fluid-based processes, and models for further development. It bridges the gap between theory and application, and is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and students alike. Includes thermodynamic and mass transfer data necessary for industrial plant design Explains the mechanisms of reactions in a supercritical fluid environment Lists numerous industrial processes for the production of many consumer products

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology Book

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology


  • Author : Concepcion Domingo Pascual
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2015-10-22
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 566
  • ISBN 10 : 9789814613415

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Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology Excerpt :

The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemical

Supercritical and Other High pressure Solvent Systems Book

Supercritical and Other High pressure Solvent Systems


  • Author : Andrew J Hunt
  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release Date : 2018-08-24
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 678
  • ISBN 10 : 9781788015189

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Supercritical and Other High pressure Solvent Systems Excerpt :

Exploring the range and utility of high-pressure solvent systems across a variety of different chemical applications, this book brings together recent advances in supercritical technology and other pressurised-solvent systems. It provides an in-depth overview of the latest advances and developments and discusses the limitations and drawbacks that need to be addressed. Wherever possible, the greenness and economic viability of the different solvent systems is highlighted. This book is ideal for researchers and industrialists working in environmental science, green chemistry and biorefineries.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications Book

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications


  • Author : Vladimir Anikeev
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release Date : 2013-12-21
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 284
  • ISBN 10 : 9780444626974

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Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications Excerpt :

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection