Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Randolf Menzel
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071496

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

In 1984, Hawkins and Kandel published a seminal paper titled “Is There a Cell-Biological Alphabet for Simple Forms of Learning?” Based on their early findings of the cooperative regulation of adenylyl cyclase in sensory neurons of Aplysia, an overarching concept was presented which opened our mind to molecular mechanisms of experience-dependent neural plasticity. Several basic forms of nonassociative and associative learning (habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning) were explained on the level of rather simple molecular reaction cascades in specific neurons. At that time, these were radical ideas, and even today we struggle with the question whether cognitive faculties such as learning and memory formation can be reduced to ubiquitous cellular functions, and what such a reduction might mean. The concepts presented in this paper were also radical in the sense that they broke with the speculation that the information of acquired memories is stored in molecules like RNA. Meanwhile, it is well accepted in neuroscience that neural circuits acquire new information by changing network properties on the level of specified neurons and their synaptic connections. Multiple key elements contribute to these adaptations, and it is the task of today’s neuroscience to unravel the complex hierarchies of interactions from the molecular to the systems level in solving the problem of predicting future behavior from experience in the past.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Randolf Menzel
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780123982605

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

Understanding how memories are induced and maintained is one of the major outstanding questions in modern neuroscience. This is difficult to address in the mammalian brain due to its enormous complexity, and invertebrates offer major advantages for learning and memory studies because of their relative simplicity. Many important discoveries made in invertebrates have been found to be generally applicable to higher organisms, and the overarching theme of the proposed will be to integrate information from different levels of neural organization to help generate a complete account of learning and memory. Edited by two leaders in the field, Invertebrate Learning and Memory will offer a current and comprehensive review, with chapters authored by experts in each topic. The volume will take a multidisciplinary approach, exploring behavioral, cellular, genetic, molecular, and computational investigations of memory. Coverage will include comparative cognition at the behavioral and mechanistic level, developments in concepts and methodologies that will underlie future advancements, and mechanistic examples from the most important vertebrate systems (nematodes, molluscs, and insects). Neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the neural control of cognitive behavior will benefit, as will as will those in the field of invertebrate learning. Presents an overview of invertebrate studies at the molecular / cellular / neural levels and correlates findings to mammalian behavioral investigations Linking multidisciplinary approaches allows for full understanding of how molecular changes in neurons and circuits underpin behavioral plasticity Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available Comprehensive coverage synthesizes widely dispersed research, serving as one-stop shopping for comparative learning and memory researchers

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Nigel R. Franks
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071885

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

We consider issues of social learning in insect societies. Specifically, we review two controversial cases: (1) teaching during tandem running in the rock ant Temnothorax albipennis and (2) colony-level learning during repeated emigrations in the same species. We have selected these examples for several reasons. First, we wish to highlight the value of using insects as model systems for studying social learning in general. Second, these cases serve as an antidote to the notion that social learning requires theories of mind. Third, social insects provide ideal experimental systems for the rigorous examination of the causes and consequences of social learning. We believe our findings and conclusions are important to those interested in social learning in humans, other vertebrates, and invertebrates because they may suggest that in these systems too social learning can occur in the absence of theories of mind.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Barbara Webb
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071564

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

A robot that senses and interacts autonomously with the real world can be used to embody specific hypotheses about the mechanisms of learning in invertebrates. Several models of olfactory learning circuits in the mushroom body of flies have been proposed. To use this to control a robot, it is crucial to understand not only when and how changes in synaptic strength occur but also how those synaptic changes fit within a circuit that produces ongoing behavior. Considering this problem from a robotic perspective reveals some conflicting assumptions made in current research that need to be resolved.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Binyamin Hochner
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071724

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

Cephalopod mollusks such as octopus, cuttlefish, and squid (coleoids) are of special interest for studying the evolution and function of learning and memory mechanisms at the system level. They are believed to have the most advanced cognitive behaviors of all invertebrates, rivaling the abilities of many vertebrates. The phylum Mollusca shows the most diversified range of behavioral complexity among the invertebrates, with behavioral complexity correlating roughly with the size of the nervous system (a few thousand vs. half a billion neurons) and its morphological organization (centralized vs. distributed). The mollusks therefore provide an excellent opportunity for assessing conservation and convergent processes in the evolution and development of learning and memory systems subserving complex behaviors. The pioneering work of J. Z. Young, M. J. Wells, and colleagues confirmed that a specific structure in the brain of the modern cephalopods, the vertical lobe, is involved in their highly sophisticated behaviors. This chapter summarizes recent neurophysiological research in the octopus and cuttlefish vertical lobe system that, for the first time, allows a functional and computational approach to the evolution of learning and memory systems.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Alan Gelperin
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071700

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

Terrestrial slugs and snails are particularly favorable subjects for studies of comparative cognition. Chemosensation is their dominant distance sense for locating food, mates, predators, and nest sites. A variety of conditioning phenomena have been demonstrated using odors as conditioned stimuli, including higher order conditioning such as second-order conditioning and blocking. Learning has been evaluated by measuring local reflexes and whole body orientation to odors. Behaviors with learned components involve homeostatic mechanisms for water, temperature, nutrition, and circadian activity. Cellular substrates and neural correlates for plasticity in odor processing have focused on a unique brain region, the procerebral lobe, which is necessary and sufficient for learning about odor stimuli. The rich set of learning phenomena displayed by terrestrial slugs and snails emphasize the importance of seeking evidence for complex cognitive tasks by asking experimental questions appropriate to the Ümwelt of the animal. In general, invertebrates can implement most vertebrate learned logic operations.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Martin Giurfa
  • Publisher : Frontiers Open Access E-books
  • Release Date : 2011-06-01
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889190003

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Dorothea Eisenhardt
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071816

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

The behavioral phenomenon of extinction resembles the decrease of a conditioned behavior when animals experience the presentation of a previously reinforced stimulus. In honeybees, extinction is studied in an appetitive learning paradigm, the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. Here, I describe recent work on extinction in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and its underlying molecular mechanisms. I demonstrate that extinction in honeybees shares behavioral and molecular similarities with extinction in vertebrates, and I discuss whether these similarities might indicate that extinction is a phylogenetically old mechanism.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Riccardo Mozzachiodi
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071632

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

Although classical and operant conditioning are operationally distinct, it is unclear to what extent they are mechanistically similar or different. Feeding behavior in the mollusk Aplysia californica is a useful model system to analyze these two ubiquitous forms of associative learning and compare the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Here, we review studies that have analyzed and compared the mechanisms underlying classical and operant conditioning at the circuit, single-cell, and molecular levels. These analyses reveal similarities and intriguing differences. Both forms of learning lead to increased biting in vivo and fictive ingestion in vitro and also share a common reinforcement pathway, which uses dopamine as the reinforcement transmitter. Although the identified neuron B51 is a locus of plasticity common to both classical and operant conditioning, its activity is altered in opposite ways by these two forms of learning. B51 excitability is increased by operant conditioning, whereas it is decreased by classical conditioning.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Daniel Tomsic
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071748

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

Due to their unique advantages for certain experimental approaches, crustaceans have long been used in neurobiological research. In this chapter, we describe a number of important contributions to the field of learning and memory yielded by investigations carried out over more than 20 years in the crab Neohelice (until recently Chasmagnathus) granulata. Several distinct learning paradigms have been implemented in this animal, with the most compelling studies being performed in the so called context-signal memory (CSM). Acquired through a single training session, CSM entails a long-lasting modification (>5 days) of the escape response to a visual danger stimulus. CSM is determined by an association between two independent memories—a memory of the stimulus (signal memory) and a memory of the training environment (context memory). Investigations of CSM have been performed using behavioral, ecological, electrophysiological, anatomical, pharmacological, and molecular approaches. Fundamental findings and their significance are discussed.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Elizabeth A. Tibbetts
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071908

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

Individual recognition is often considered a cognitively challenging form of recognition because it requires flexible learning and memory. Because Polistes paper wasps are one of the few invertebrates known to have individual recognition, they provide a good model for exploring how individual recognition shapes cognitive evolution. Here, we review previous work on individual recognition in paper wasps with a particular focus on learning and memory. In this review, we (1) explore the evolution of individual recognition in paper wasps, including the selective pressures thought to shape the origin and maintenance of individual recognition; (2) discuss the extent of memory for specific individuals during paper wasp social interactions; (3) describe a negative reinforcement training method that can be used for comparative learning research in wasps and other invertebrates; and (4) explain how individual recognition has shaped the evolution of specialized visual learning in paper wasps.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Ludovic Dickel
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071731

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

This chapter summarizes the literature on the anatomical and functional organization of the cuttlefish brain, with a focus on the structures involved in learning and memory processes (namely the vertical lobe system and optic lobes). Also, different learning paradigms that are commonly used in Sepia officinalis are described with, when possible, their neural correlates. Recent work on the early development of brain and memory is also reviewed. Some research directions to follow in the field of neurobiology of learning and memory in cuttlefish are suggested to better understand the extraordinary behavioral plasticity of these sophisticated invertebrates.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Piero Amodio
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071717

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

Octopus is an invertebrate well-known for the extreme richness of its behavioral repertoire and plasticity. Recent field observations including mimicry, communicative skills, and tool use capabilities have further supported this view. This chapter briefly reviews the most recent knowledge on octopus learning capabilities, focusing on its capability to learn by observation of conspecifics. Social learning is classically conceived as a behavioral trait shown by gregarious and long-lived animals. However, it has recently been considered to occur in solitary vertebrate and invertebrate species. This chapter provides an update on the experimental evidence for observational learning in the octopus and discusses the constraints and peculiarities of social learning and the potential evolutionary meanings of this capability in this cephalopod mollusk.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Jean-Christophe Sandoz
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071786

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

A general question in the study of associative learning and memory is how stimulus-specific and outcome-related information is acquired, stored and retrieved by the nervous system. The honeybee antennal lobe is a tractable structure for studying this question, with its modular organization with clearly identified glomeruli. This chapter deals with the search for functional and structural plasticity in the bee brain as a result of olfactory conditioning. After detailing the different forms of olfactory learning that can be studied in laboratory conditions, a short description of the olfactory system of honeybees is provided, with a special emphasis on the antennal lobe, detailing the reasons why plasticity may be expected in this structure. Then, we will review the results procured by studies coupling different olfactory conditioning protocols with neurophysiological and neuroanatomical quantification techniques. Lastly, we will discuss where research should focus next in order to understand how stimulus-specific and outcome-related memories are formed and stored in the bee brain.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Book

Invertebrate Learning and Memory


  • Author : Douglas A. Baxter
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-06-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128071557

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory Excerpt :

Mathematical models and computer simulations play important roles in developing a better understanding of learning and memory mechanisms. Models provide a means for representing, integrating, and manipulating diverse and complex empirical data. This chapter provides an overview of computational studies of learning and memory in invertebrates, including gene regulatory networks, signal transduction cascades, single neurons, and neural networks. These computational studies are helping to link specific component processes (e.g., changes in protein levels and phosphorylation, modulation of membrane conductances, synaptic plasticity, and network architecture) to features of nonassociative and associative learning. Moreover, these computational studies highlight mechanistic features that are common among different animals and common to multiple forms of learning and memory. Thus, computational analyses provide insights into the relationships among simple and complex forms of learning.