Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments Book

Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments


  • Author : Salom Thanga
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2020-01-15
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 500
  • ISBN 10 : 012815165X

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Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments Book Description :

Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments: Structure and Functions presents research gained on coastal microbiology over the past two decades. The book covers the source of organic matter, which is found to design sediment microbial communities, and goes on to consider the quality of this matter with regard to degradation in coastal sediment. The book explores human induced changes in coastal ecosystems, then later focuses on the availability of nutrients, source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the sediment, and the sequencing of microbial structures and functions when using molecular tools. Despite the years of research, this is the first book to focus purely on coastal microbes in coastal ecosystems. As such, it is for gaining a better understanding of the diversity and functions of different types of microbes in coastal ecosystems across the globe. The book outlines the microbial community structure in marine sediments while also elaborating on the methods of assessment of the microbial community, making it of great relevance to aquatic microbiologists, marine ecologists, marine microbiologists, aquatic researchers, and scientists alike. Presents data on physico-chemical and biological features of coastal ecosystems and microbial community composition, allowing researchers to compare their data with pre-existing data Includes unique figures, schematic diagrams and photographs related to microbial processes of coastal ecosystems, providing a clear representation on the different aspects of microbial structure and functions Provides analytical methods and detailed molecular techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microbial community structure, enabling scientists and students to follow the protocols provided in the book for assessment in their own research

Performance Assessment and Enrichment of Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Microbial Communities from Marine Sediments in Bioreactors Book

Performance Assessment and Enrichment of Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Microbial Communities from Marine Sediments in Bioreactors


  • Author : Susma Bhattarai Gautam
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2018-08-20
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 22
  • ISBN 10 : 9780429826450

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Performance Assessment and Enrichment of Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Microbial Communities from Marine Sediments in Bioreactors Book Description :

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (AOM-SR) is a biological process mediated by anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria. It has scientifi c and societal relevance in regulating the global carbon cycle and biotechnological application for treating sulfate-rich wastewater. This research aimed to enhance the recent knowledge on ANME distribution and its enrichment in different bioreactor confi gurations, i.e. membrane bioreactor (MBR), biotrickling fi lter (BTF) and high pressure bioreactor (HPB). Marine sediment from Ginsburg mud volcano, Gulf of Cadiz was used as inoculum in the BTF and MBR. The BTF operation showed the enrichment of ANME in the biofi lm, especially ANME-1 (40%) and ANME-2 (10%). Whereas, the dominancy of ANME-2 and Desulfosarcina aggregates was observed in the MBR. Moreover, HPB study was performed by using highly enriched ANME-2 community from Captain Arutyunov mud volcano. During the study of HPB at different temperature and pressure conditions, the incubation at 10 MPa pressure and 15 ̊C was observed to be the most suitable condition for the studied AOM-SR community. Furthermore, AOM-SR activity in the coastal sediments from marine Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands) was explored and the microbial community was characterised which was dominated by ANME-3 among known ANME types.

The Responses of Marine Microorganisms  Communities and Ecofunctions to Environmental Gradients Book

The Responses of Marine Microorganisms Communities and Ecofunctions to Environmental Gradients


  • Author : Stefan M. Sievert
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2019-04-05
  • Genre:
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889458073

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The Responses of Marine Microorganisms Communities and Ecofunctions to Environmental Gradients Book Description :

Marine environments are fluid. Microorganisms living in the ocean experience diverse environmental changes over wide spatiotemporal scales. For microorganisms and their communities to survive and function in the ocean, they need to have the capacity to sense, respond to, adapt to and/or withstand periodic and sporadic environmental changes. This eBook collates a variety of recent research reports and theoretical discussions on the ecoenergetic strategies, community structure, biogeochemical and ecosystem functions as well as regulatory processes and mechanisms that marine microorganisms employ in response to environmental gradients and variations.

The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems Book

The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems


  • Author : Joel E. Kostka
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2015-05-15
  • Genre:
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889193462

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The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems Book Description :

Biodegradation mediated by indigenous microbial communities is the ultimate fate of the majority of oil hydrocarbon that enters the marine environment. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight recent advances in our knowledge of the pathways and controls of microbially-catalyzed hydrocarbon degradation in marine ecosystems, with emphasis on the response of microbial communities to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In this Research Topic, we encouraged original research and reviews on the ecology of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, the rates and mechanisms of biodegradation, and the bioremediation of discharged oil under situ as well as near in situ conditions.

Microbial Ecotoxicology Book

Microbial Ecotoxicology


  • Author : Stéphane Pesce
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2020-07-17
  • Genre:
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889638819

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Microbial Ecotoxicology Book Description :

Performance Assessment and Enrichment of Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Microbial Communities from Marine Sediments in Bioreactors Book

Performance Assessment and Enrichment of Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Microbial Communities from Marine Sediments in Bioreactors


  • Author : Susma Bhattarai Gautam
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2018-08-20
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 22
  • ISBN 10 : 9780429826450

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Performance Assessment and Enrichment of Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Microbial Communities from Marine Sediments in Bioreactors Book Description :

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (AOM-SR) is a biological process mediated by anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria. It has scientifi c and societal relevance in regulating the global carbon cycle and biotechnological application for treating sulfate-rich wastewater. This research aimed to enhance the recent knowledge on ANME distribution and its enrichment in different bioreactor confi gurations, i.e. membrane bioreactor (MBR), biotrickling fi lter (BTF) and high pressure bioreactor (HPB). Marine sediment from Ginsburg mud volcano, Gulf of Cadiz was used as inoculum in the BTF and MBR. The BTF operation showed the enrichment of ANME in the biofi lm, especially ANME-1 (40%) and ANME-2 (10%). Whereas, the dominancy of ANME-2 and Desulfosarcina aggregates was observed in the MBR. Moreover, HPB study was performed by using highly enriched ANME-2 community from Captain Arutyunov mud volcano. During the study of HPB at different temperature and pressure conditions, the incubation at 10 MPa pressure and 15 ̊C was observed to be the most suitable condition for the studied AOM-SR community. Furthermore, AOM-SR activity in the coastal sediments from marine Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands) was explored and the microbial community was characterised which was dominated by ANME-3 among known ANME types.

The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems Book

The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems


  • Author : Joel E. Kostka
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2015-05-15
  • Genre:
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889193462

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The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems Book Description :

Biodegradation mediated by indigenous microbial communities is the ultimate fate of the majority of oil hydrocarbon that enters the marine environment. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight recent advances in our knowledge of the pathways and controls of microbially-catalyzed hydrocarbon degradation in marine ecosystems, with emphasis on the response of microbial communities to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In this Research Topic, we encouraged original research and reviews on the ecology of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, the rates and mechanisms of biodegradation, and the bioremediation of discharged oil under situ as well as near in situ conditions.

Interactions Between Macro  and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments Book

Interactions Between Macro and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments


  • Author : Erik Kristensen
  • Publisher : American Geophysical Union
  • Release Date : 2005-01-14
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 390
  • ISBN 10 : 9780875902746

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Interactions Between Macro and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments Book Description :

Marine sediments support complex interactions between macro-and microorganisms that have global implications for carbon and nutrient cycles. What is the state of the science on such interactions from coastal and estuarine environments to the deep sea? How does such knowledge effect environmental management? And what does future research hold in store for scientists, engineers, resource managers, and educators?Interactions between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments responds to these questions, and more, by focusing on:? Interactions between plants, microorganisms, and marine sediment? Interactions between animals, microorganisms, and marine sediment? Interactions between macro- and microorganisms and the structuring of benthic communities? Impact of macrobenthic activity on microbially-mediated geochemical cycles in sediments? Conceptual and numeric models of diagenesis that incorporate interactions between macro- and microorganismsHere is an authoritative overview of the research, experimentation and modeling approaches now in use in our rapidly evolving understanding of life in marine sediments.

Microbiology of the Rapidly Changing Polar Environments Book

Microbiology of the Rapidly Changing Polar Environments


  • Author : Julie Dinasquet
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2018-07-05
  • Genre:
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889455133

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Microbiology of the Rapidly Changing Polar Environments Book Description :

Marine and freshwater polar environments are characterized by intense physical forces and strong seasonal variations. The persistent cold and sometimes inhospitable conditions create unique ecosystems and habitats for microbial life. Polar microbial communities are diverse productive assemblages, which drive biogeochemical cycles and support higher food-webs across the Arctic and over much of the Antarctic. Recent studies on the biogeography of microbial species have revealed phylogenetically diverse polar ecotypes, suggesting adaptation to seasonal darkness, sea-ice coverage and high summer irradiance. Because of the diversity of habitats related to atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and the formation and melting of ice, high latitude oceans and lakes are ideal environments to investigate composition and functionality of microbial communities. In addition, polar regions are responding more dramatically to climate change compared to temperate environments and there is an urgent need to identify sensitive indicators of ecosystem history, that may be sentinels for change or adaptation. For instance, Antarctic lakes provide useful model systems to study microbial evolution and climate history. Hence, it becomes essential and timely to better understand factors controlling the microbes, and how, in turn, they may affect the functioning of these fragile ecosystems. Polar microbiology is an expanding field of research with exciting possibilities to provide new insights into microbial ecology and evolution. With this Research Topic we seek to bring together polar microbiologists studying different aquatic systems and components of the microbial food web, to stimulate discussion and reflect on these sensitive environments in a changing world perspective.

Microbial Ecotoxicology Book

Microbial Ecotoxicology


  • Author : Cristiana Cravo-Laureau
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-08-01
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 362
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319617954

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Microbial Ecotoxicology Book Description :

This book is a treatise on microbial ecotoxicology, discussing the effect of pollutants on microbial ecosystems and the role of microorganisms in ecosystems services. Emphasizing the microbial responses to pollution at different biological levels, it focuses on metabolic pathways, genetic adaptation and response at the whole-microbial community level. It also addresses the ecological indicators of ecosystem recovery, as well as microbial biomarkers and biosensors as tools for microbial ecotoxicology.

Coastal Sediments 2019   Proceedings Of The 9th International Conference Book

Coastal Sediments 2019 Proceedings Of The 9th International Conference


  • Author : Rosati Julie D
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2019-05-17
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 3050
  • ISBN 10 : 9789811204494

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Coastal Sediments 2019 Proceedings Of The 9th International Conference Book Description :

This Proceedings contains over 260 papers on cutting-edge research presented at the 9th International Conference on Coastal Sediments 2019 (CS19), held in Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida, USA from May 27-31, 2019. This technical specialty conference is devoted to promoting an interdisciplinary exchange of state-of-the-art knowledge among researchers in the fields of coastal engineering, geology, oceanography, and related disciplines.With the theme of 'Advancing Science & Engineering for Resilient Coastal Systems', this Proceedings covers a wide range of research topics on coastal sediment processes from nearshore sediment transport and modelling to beach processes, shore protection, and coastal management.

Microbial Mats Book

Microbial Mats


  • Author : Joseph Seckbach
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2010-07-17
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 606
  • ISBN 10 : 9048137993

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Microbial Mats Book Description :

This book provides information about microbial mats, from early fossils to modern mats located in marine and terrestrial environments. Microbial mats – layered biofilms containing different types of cells – are most complex systems in which representatives of various groups of organisms are found together. Among them are cyanobacteria and eukaryotic phototrophs, aerobic heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic bacteria, protozoa, anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, and other types of microorganisms. These mats are perfect models for biogeochemical processes, such as the cycles of chemical elements, in which a variety of microorganisms cooperate and interact in complex ways. They are often found under extreme conditions and their study contributes to our understanding of extremophilic life. Moreover, microbial mats are models for Precambrian stromatolites; the study of modern microbial mats may provide information on the processes that may have occurred on Earth when prokaryotic life began to spread.

The Prokaryotes Book

The Prokaryotes


  • Author : Edward F. DeLong
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2014-11-19
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 1063
  • ISBN 10 : 3642301398

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The Prokaryotes Book Description :

The Prokaryotes is a comprehensive, multi-authored, peer reviewed reference work on Bacteria and Achaea. This fourth edition of The Prokaryotes is organized to cover all taxonomic diversity, using the family level to delineate chapters. Different from other resources, this new Springer product includes not only taxonomy, but also prokaryotic biology and technology of taxa in a broad context. Technological aspects highlight the usefulness of prokaryotes in processes and products, including biocontrol agents and as genetics tools. The content of the expanded fourth edition is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains review chapters dealing with the most important general concepts in molecular, applied and general prokaryote biology; Part 2 describes the known properties of specific taxonomic groups. Two completely new sections have been added to Part 1: bacterial communities and human bacteriology. The bacterial communities section reflects the growing realization that studies on pure cultures of bacteria have led to an incomplete picture of the microbial world for two fundamental reasons: the vast majority of bacteria in soil, water and associated with biological tissues are currently not culturable, and that an understanding of microbial ecology requires knowledge on how different bacterial species interact with each other in their natural environment. The new section on human microbiology deals with bacteria associated with healthy humans and bacterial pathogenesis. Each of the major human diseases caused by bacteria is reviewed, from identifying the pathogens by classical clinical and non-culturing techniques to the biochemical mechanisms of the disease process. The 4th edition of The Prokaryotes is the most complete resource on the biology of prokaryotes.

Anthropogenic Impacts on the Microbial Ecology and Function of Aquatic Environments Book

Anthropogenic Impacts on the Microbial Ecology and Function of Aquatic Environments


  • Author : Maurizio Labbate
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2016-09-06
  • Genre:
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889199396

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Anthropogenic Impacts on the Microbial Ecology and Function of Aquatic Environments Book Description :

Aquatic ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented levels of impact from human activities including over-exploitation of resources, habitat destruction, pollution and the influence of climate change. The impacts of these activities on the microbial ecology of aquatic environments are only now beginning to be defined. One of the many implications of environmental degradation and climate change is the geographical expansion of disease- causing microbes such as those from the Vibrio genus. Elevating sea surface temperatures correlate with increasing Vibrio numbers and disease in marine animals (e.g. corals) and humans. Contamination of aquatic environments with heavy metals and other pollutants affects microbial ecology with downstream effects on biogeochemical cycles and nutrient turnover. Also of importance is the pollution of aquatic environments with antibiotics, resistance genes and the mobile genetic elements that house resistance genes from human and animal waste. Such contaminated environments act as a source of resistance genes long after an antibiotic has ceased being used in the community. Environments contaminated with mobile genetic elements that are adapted to human commensals and pathogens function to capture new resistance genes for potential reintroduction back into clinical environments. This research topic encompasses these diverse topics and describes the affect(s) of human activity on the microbial ecology and function in aquatic environments and, describes methods of restoration and for modelling disturbances.

Deep Subsurface Microbiology Book

Deep Subsurface Microbiology


  • Author : Andreas Teske
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2015-07-01
  • Genre:
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889195367

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Deep Subsurface Microbiology Book Description :

Deep subsurface microbiology is a highly active and rapidly advancing research field at the interface of microbiology and the geosciences; it focuses on the detection, identification, quantification, cultivation and activity measurements of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes that permeate the subsurface biosphere of deep marine sediments and the basaltic ocean and continental crust. The deep subsurface biosphere abounds with uncultured, only recently discovered and – at best - incompletely understood microbial populations. In spatial extent and volume, Earth's subsurface biosphere is only rivaled by the deep sea water column. So far, no deep subsurface sediment has been found that is entirely devoid of microbial life; microbial cells and DNA remain detectable at sediment depths of more than 1 km; microbial life permeates deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs, and is also found several kilometers down in continental crust aquifers. Severe energy limitation, either as electron acceptor or donor shortage, and scarcity of microbially degradable organic carbon sources are among the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the genomic and physiological repertoire of the deep subsurface biosphere. Its biogeochemical role as long-term organic carbon repository, inorganic electron and energy source, and subduction recycling engine continues to be explored by current research at the interface of microbiology, geochemistry and biosphere/geosphere evolution. This Research Topic addresses some of the central research questions about deep subsurface microbiology and biogeochemistry: phylogenetic and physiological microbial diversity in the deep subsurface; microbial activity and survival strategies in severely energy-limited subsurface habitats; microbial activity as reflected in process rates and gene expression patterns; biogeographic isolation and connectivity in deep subsurface microbial communities; the ecological standing of subsurface biospheres in comparison to the surface

The Marine Microbiome Book

The Marine Microbiome


  • Author : Lucas J. Stal
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2016-06-03
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 498
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319330006

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The Marine Microbiome Book Description :

This book describes the state-of-the-art concerning the ‘marine microbiome’ and its uses in biotechnology. The first part discusses the diversity and ecology of marine microorganisms and viruses, including all three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. It discusses whether marine microorganisms exist and, if so, why they might be unique. The second part presents selected marine habitats, their inhabitants and how they influence biogeochemical cycles, while the third discusses the utilization of marine microbial resources, including legal aspects, dissemination, and public awareness. The marine microbiome is the total of microorganisms and viruses in the ocean and seas and in any connected environment, including the seafloor and marine animals and plants. The diversity of microbial life remains unquantified and largely unknown, and could represent a hidden treasure for human society. Accordingly, this book is also intended to connect academics and industry, providing essential information for microbiologists from both fields.

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments Book

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments


  • Author : David J. Burdige
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release Date : 2020-08-04
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9780691216096

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Geochemistry of Marine Sediments Book Description :

The processes occurring in surface marine sediments have a profound effect on the local and global cycling of many elements. This graduate text presents the fundamentals of marine sediment geochemistry by examining the complex chemical, biological, and physical processes that contribute to the conversion of these sediments to rock, a process known as early diagenesis. Research over the past three decades has uncovered the fact that the oxidation of organic matter deposited in sediment acts as a causative agent for many early diagenetic changes. Summarizing and discussing these findings and providing a much-needed update to Robert Berner's Early Diagenesis: A Theoretical Approach, David J. Burdige describes the ways to quantify geochemical processes in marine sediment. By doing so, he offers a deeper understanding of the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, along with important metals such as iron and manganese. No other book presents such an in-depth look at marine sediment geochemistry. Including the most up-to-date research, a complete survey of the subject, explanatory text, and the most recent mathematical formulations that have contributed to our greater understanding of early diagenesis, Geochemistry of Marine Sediments will interest graduate students of geology, geochemistry, and oceanography, as well as the broader community of earth scientists. It is poised to become the standard text on the subject for years to come.

Seagrasses of Australia Book

Seagrasses of Australia


  • Author : Anthony W. D. Larkum
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2018-07-27
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 797
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319713540

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Seagrasses of Australia Book Description :

This book takes the place of “Biology of Seagrasses: A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region”, co-edited by A.W.D. Larkum, A.J. MaCComb and S.A. Shepherd and published by Elsevier in 1989. The first book has been influential, but it is now 25 years since it was published and seagrass studies have progressed and developed considerably since then. The design of the current book follows in the steps of the first book. There are chapters on taxonomy, floral biology, biogeography and regional studies. The regional studies emphasize the importance of Australia having over half of the world’s 62 species, including some ten species published for Australia since the previous book. There are a number of chapters on ecology and biogeography; fish biology and fisheries and dugong biology are prominent chapters. Physiological aspects again play an important part, including new knowledge on the role of hydrogen sulphide in sediments and on photosynthetic processes. Climate change, pollution and environmental degradation this time gain an even more important part of the book. Decline of seagrasses around Australia are also discussed in detail in several chapters. Since the first book was published two new areas have received special attention: blue carbon and genomic studies. Seagrasses are now known to be a very important player in the formation of blue carbon, i.e. carbon that has a long turnover time in soils and sediments. Alongside salt marshes and mangroves, seagrasses are now recognized as playing a very important role in the formation of blue carbon. And because Australia has such an abundance and variety of seagrasses, their role in blue carbon production and turnover is of great importance. The first whole genomes of seagrasses are now available and Australia has played an important role here. It appears that seagrasses have several different suites of genes as compared with other (land) plants and even in comparison

Biodiversity  Ecosystem Functioning  and Human Wellbeing Book

Biodiversity Ecosystem Functioning and Human Wellbeing


  • Author : Shahid Naeem
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2009-07-30
  • Genre: Nature
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN 10 : 9780199547951

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Biodiversity Ecosystem Functioning and Human Wellbeing Book Description :

In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services. The book starts by summarizing the development of the basic science and provides a meta-analysis that quantitatively tests several biodiversity and ecosystem functioning hypotheses. It then describes the natural science foundations of biodiversityand ecosystem functioning research including: quantifying functional diversity, the development of the field into a predictive science, the effects of stability and complexity, methods to quantifymechanisms by which diversity affects functioning, the importance of trophic structure, microbial ecology, and spatial dynamics. Finally, the book takes research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning further than it has ever gone into the human dimension, describing the most pressing environmental challenges that face humanity and the effects of diversity on: climate change mitigation, restoration of degraded habitats, managed ecosystems, pollination, disease, and biological invasions.