Visible Light Active Photocatalysis Book

Visible Light Active Photocatalysis


  • Author : Srabanti Ghosh
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2018-06-11
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN 10 : 9783527342938

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Visible Light Active Photocatalysis Book Description :

A comprehensive and timely overview of this important and hot topic, with special emphasis placed on environmental applications and the potential for solar light harvesting. Following introductory chapters on environmental photocatalysis, water splitting, and applications in synthetic chemistry, further chapters focus on the synthesis and design of photocatalysts, solar energy conversion, and such environmental aspects as the removal of water pollutants, photocatalytic conversion of CO2. Besides metal oxide-based photocatalysts, the authors cover other relevant material classes including carbon-based nanomaterials and novel hybrid materials. Chapters on mechanistic aspects, computational modeling of photocatalysis and Challenges and perspectives of solar reactor design for industrial applications complete this unique survey of the subject. With its in-depth discussions ranging from a comprehensive understanding to the engineering of materials and applied devices, this is an invaluable resource for a range of disciplines.

Semiconductor Photocatalysis Book

Semiconductor Photocatalysis


  • Author : Wenbin Cao
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2016-08-24
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 676
  • ISBN 10 : 9789535124849

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Semiconductor Photocatalysis Book Description :

Photocatalysis is a hot topic because it is an environmentally friendly approach toward the conversion of light energy into chemical energy at mild reaction environments. Also, it is well applied in several major areas such as water splitting, bacterial inactivation, and pollutants elimination, which is a possible solution to energy shortage and environmental issues. The fundamental knowledge and the frontier research progress in typical photocatalytic materials, such as TiO2-based and non-TiO2-based photocatalysts, are included in this book. Methods to improve the photocatalytic efficiency and to provide a hint for the rational design of the new photocatalysts are covered.

Nanostructured Photocatalysts Book

Nanostructured Photocatalysts


  • Author : Hiromi Yamashita
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2016-05-03
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 544
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319260792

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Nanostructured Photocatalysts Book Description :

While books on semiconductor TiO2 photocatalysis are legion, nanostructured controlled photocatalysts are attractive beyond standard semiconductors, and this book is devoted to the many novel uses of advanced TiO2 and MOF-based photocatalysts. Details on synthesis, characterization, and reaction applications of nanostructured photocatalysts are summarized. Other new materials discussed in this book are Bi- W- oxides, metal complexes, and unique porous materials. This book contains methods of preparation and characterization of unique nanostructured photocatalysts, and details about their catalytic action. Contributors to this volume are leading Asian researchers in Photocatalysis. It will appeal to researchers wishing to know how to design new types of photocatalysts with controlled nanostructures.

Nanostructured Photocatalysts Book

Nanostructured Photocatalysts


  • Author : Rabah Boukherroub
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2020-06-06
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128178379

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Nanostructured Photocatalysts Book Description :

Nanostructured Photocatalysts: From Materials to Applications in Solar Fuels and Environmental Remediation addresses the different properties of nanomaterials-based heterogeneous photocatalysis. Heterogeneous nanostructured photocatalysis represents an interesting and viable technique to address issues of climate change and global energy supply. Sustainable hydrogen (H2) fuel production from water via semiconductor photocatalysis, driven by solar energy, is regarded as a viable and sustainable solution to address increasing energy and environmental issues. Similarly, photocatalytic reduction of CO2 with water for the production of hydrocarbons could also be a viable solution. Sections cover band gap tuning, high surface area, the short diffusion path of carriers, and more. Introduces the utilization of nanostructured materials in heterogeneous photocatalysis for hydrogen fuel production via water splitting Explains preparation techniques for different nanomaterials and hybrid nanocomposites, enabling improved sunlight absorption efficiency and enhanced charge separation Assesses the challenges that need to be addressed before this technology can be practically implemented, particularly of identifying cost-effective nanophotocatalysts

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Nanostructured Materials for Visible Light driven Photo Processes Book

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Nanostructured Materials for Visible Light driven Photo Processes


  • Author : Rania Elhadi Adam
  • Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
  • Release Date : 2020-03-18
  • Genre:
  • Pages : 89
  • ISBN 10 : 9789179298784

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Synthesis and Characterization of Some Nanostructured Materials for Visible Light driven Photo Processes Book Description :

Nanostructured materials for visible light driven photo-processes such as photodegradation of organic pollutants and photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation for hydrogen production are very attractive because of the positive impact on the environment. Metal oxides-based nanostructures are widely used in these photoprocesses due to their unique properties. But single nanostructured metal oxide material might suffer from low efficiency and instability in aqueous solutions under visible light. These facts make it important to have an efficient and reliable nanocomposite for the photo-processes. The combination of different nanomaterials to form a composite configuration can produce a material with new properties. The new properties which are due to the synergetic effect, are a combination of the properties of all the counterparts of the nanocomposite. Zinc oxides (ZnO) have unique optical and electrical properties which grant it to be used in optoelectronics, sensors, solar cells, nanogenerators, and photocatalysis activities. Although ZnO absorbs visible light from the sun due to the deep level band, it mainly absorbs ultraviolet wavelengths which constitute a small portion of the whole solar spectrum range. Also, ZnO has a problem with the high recombination rate of the photogenerated electrons. These problems might reduce its applicability to the photo-process. Therefore, our aim is to develop and investigate different nanocomposites materials based on the ZnO nanostructures for the enhancement of photocatalysis processes using the visible solar light as a green source of energy. Two photo-processes were applied to examine the developed nanocomposites through photocatalysis: (1) the photodegradation of organic dyes, (2) PEC water splitting. In the first photo-process, we used the ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), Magnesium (Mg)-doped ZnO NPs, and plasmonic ZnO/graphene-based nanocomposite for the decomposition of some organic dyes that have been used in industries. For th

Green Methods for Wastewater Treatment Book

Green Methods for Wastewater Treatment


  • Author : Mu. Naushad
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2019-06-26
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 292
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030164270

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Green Methods for Wastewater Treatment Book Description :

This book presents comprehensive chapters on the latest research and applications in wastewater treatment using green technologies. Topics include mesoporous materials, TiO2 nanocomposites and magnetic nanoparticles, the role of catalysts, treatment methods such as photo-Fenton, photocatalysis, electrochemistry and adsorption, and anti-bacterial solutions. This book will be useful for chemical engineers, environmental scientists, analytical chemists, materials scientists and researchers.

Nanocomposites for Visible Light induced Photocatalysis Book

Nanocomposites for Visible Light induced Photocatalysis


  • Author : Mohammad Mansoob Khan
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-09-07
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319624464

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Nanocomposites for Visible Light induced Photocatalysis Book Description :

This book details the chemistry of visible light-induced photocatalysis using different classes of nanocomposites. Starting with a general introduction and explanation of basic principles and mechanisms of (visible) light-induced photocatalysis in the first two chapters (not omitting a plaidoyer for furthering research and development in this promising field), the following chapters detail the different types and classes of nanocomposites currently used in light-induced photocatalytic applications, including e.g. metal and mixed metal-oxide nanoparticles and –composites, nanoporous materials, polymeric and carbon-based nanocomposites. They explain the characteristics and importance of the different types of nanocomposites, as well as their synthesis and fabrication.In the end of the book an outlook on the unique applications of novel nanocomposites is offered, for example in water treatment and disinfection and removal of pollutants from wastewater, self-cleaning window panes based on photoactive materials, and many more. The book also addresses the challenges in present photocatalytic research, and therefore is a must-read for everybody interested in the developing field of nanocomposites and visible light-induced photocatalysis.

Nano Materials as Photocatalysts for Degradation of Environmental Pollutants Book

Nano Materials as Photocatalysts for Degradation of Environmental Pollutants


  • Author : Pardeep Singh
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2019-12-02
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 430
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128185995

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Nano Materials as Photocatalysts for Degradation of Environmental Pollutants Book Description :

Nano-Materials as Photocatalysts for Degradation of Environmental Pollutants: Challenges and Possibilities contains both practical and theoretical aspects of environmental management using the processes of photodegradation and various heterogeneous catalysts. The book's main focus is on the degradation of harmful pollutants, such as petrochemicals, crude oils, dyes, xenobiotic pharmaceutical waste, endocrine disrupting compounds, and other common pollutants. Chapters incorporate both theoretical and practical aspects. This book is useful for undergraduate or university students, teachers and researchers, especially those working in areas of photocatalysis through heterogeneous catalysts. The primary audience for this book includes Chemical Engineers, Environmental Engineers and scientists, scholars working on the management of hazardous waste, scientists working in fields of materials science, and Civil Engineers working on wastewater treatment. Reviews recent trends in the photodegradation of organic pollutants Offers a bibliometric analysis of photocatalysis for environmental abatement Includes many degradation mechanisms of organic pollutants using various catalysts Includes examples on the degradation of organic pollutants from various sources, e.g., pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, etc. Discusses the effect of nanocatalysts on soil, plants and the ecosystem

Photocatalytic Functional Materials for Environmental Remediation Book

Photocatalytic Functional Materials for Environmental Remediation


  • Author : Alagarsamy Pandikumar
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2019-07-11
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 380
  • ISBN 10 : 9781119529842

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Photocatalytic Functional Materials for Environmental Remediation Book Description :

A comprehensive volume on photocatalytic functional materials for environmental remediation As the need for removing large amounts of pollution and contamination in air, soil, and water grows, emerging technologies in the field of environmental remediation are of increasing importance. The use of photocatalysis—a green technology with enormous potential to resolve the issues related to environmental pollution—breaks down toxic organic compounds to mineralized products such as carbon dioxide and water. Due to their high performance, ease of fabrication, long-term stability, and low manufacturing costs, photofunctional materials constructed from nanocomposite materials hold great potential for environmental remediation. Photocatalytic Functional Materials for Environmental Remediation examines the development of high performance photofunctional materials for the treatment of environmental pollutants. This timely volume assembles and reviews a broad range of ideas from leading experts in fields of chemistry, physics, nanotechnology, materials science, and engineering. Precise, up-to-date chapters cover both the fundamentals and applications of photocatalytic functional materials. Semiconductor-metal nanocomposites, layered double hydroxides, metal-organic frameworks, polymer nanocomposites, and other photofunctional materials are examined in applications such as carbon dioxide reduction and organic pollutant degradation. Providing interdisciplinary focus to green technology materials for the treatment of environmental pollutants, this important work: Provides comprehensive coverage of various photocatalytic materials for environmental remediation useful for researchers and developers Encompasses both fundamental concepts and applied technology in the field Focuses on novel design and application of photocatalytic materials used for the removal of environmental contaminates and pollution Offers in-depth examination of highly topical green-technology solutions Presen

Visible Light Photocatalysis of Carbon Based Materials Book

Visible Light Photocatalysis of Carbon Based Materials


  • Author : Yunjin Yao
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2018-04-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 164
  • ISBN 10 : 9781789230284

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Visible Light Photocatalysis of Carbon Based Materials Book Description :

Carbon-based photocatalysis has been considered as an economic, safe, renewable, and clean technology, for various applications. However, the pristine carbon material is usually restricted by unsatisfactory photocatalytic efficiency and practical applications due to the insufficient solar light absorption, the low-surface area, and the fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Various modification strategies, such as elemental and molecular doping, preparation of mesoporous carbon materials, and combination of conductive materials, are adopted to enhance the photocatalytic activity of carbon materials. In this book, we intend to describe the great potential of efficient and low-cost carbon-based materials in various realms, such as photodegradation of organic compounds, water splitting, and selective organic transformations.

Nanotechnology and Photocatalysis for Environmental Applications Book

Nanotechnology and Photocatalysis for Environmental Applications


  • Author : Muhammad Bilal Tahir
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2020-07-14
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 244
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128211977

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Nanotechnology and Photocatalysis for Environmental Applications Book Description :

Nanotechnology and Photocatalysis for Environmental Applications focuses on nanostructured control, synthesis methods, activity enhancement strategies, environmental applications, and perspectives of semiconductor-based nanostructures. The book offers future guidelines for designing new semiconductor-based photocatalysts, with low cost and high efficiency, for a range of products aimed at environmental protection. The book covers the fundamentals of nanotechnology, the synthesis of nanotechnology, and the use of metal oxide, metal sulfide, and carbon-based nanomaterials in photocatalysis. The book also discusses the major challenges of using photocatalytic nanomaterials on a broad scale. The book then explores how photocatalytic nanomaterials and nanocomposites are being used for sustainable development applications, including environmental protection, pharmaceuticals, and air purification. The final chapter considers the recent advances in the field and outlines future perspectives on the technology. This is an important reference for materials scientists, chemical engineers, energy scientists, and anyone looking to understand more about the photocatalytic potential of nanomaterials, and their possible environmental applications. Explains why the properties of semiconductor-based nanomaterials make them particularly good for environmental applications Explores how photocatalytic nanomaterials and nanocomposites are being used for sustainable development applications, including environmental protection, pharmaceuticals, and air purification Discusses the major challenges of using photocatalytic nanomaterials on a broad scale

Hierarchical Micro Nanostructured Materials Book

Hierarchical Micro Nanostructured Materials


  • Author : Weiping Cai
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2014-07-01
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN 10 : 9781439876824

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Hierarchical Micro Nanostructured Materials Book Description :

Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Materials: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications presents the latest fabrication, properties, and applications of hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials in two sections—powders and arrays. After a general introduction to hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials, the first section begins with a detailed discussion of the methods of mass production for hierarchical micro/nanostructured powders, including structure-directed solvothermal routes, template-etching strategies, and electrospinning technologies. It then proceeds to address structurally enhanced adsorption and photocatalytic performances. The second section describes strategies for the fabrication of hierarchical micro/nanostructured object arrays and their devices, such as modified colloidal lithographies-based solution and electrodeposition. It also examines the structure-dependent properties and performances of the micro/nanostructured arrays, including surface wettability, optical properties, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects, and gas-sensing performances. In its cutting-edge coverage, Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Materials: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications explores the use of hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials in environmental remediation and detection devices, commenting on future trends and applications in catalysis, integrated nanophotonics, optical devices, super-high density storage media, sensors, nanobiotechnology, SERS substrates, and more.

Heterogeneous Nanocomposite Photocatalysis for Water Purification Book

Heterogeneous Nanocomposite Photocatalysis for Water Purification


  • Author : Rajendra Pawar
  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release Date : 2015-04-29
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 110
  • ISBN 10 : 9780323393133

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Heterogeneous Nanocomposite Photocatalysis for Water Purification Book Description :

In Heterogeneous Nanocomposite-Photocatalysis for Water Purification, the authors introduce various heterogeneous photocatalysts based on novel nanostructures of metal oxide semiconductors and graphene used for water purification, including TiO2, Fe2O3, SnO2, WO3 and g-C3N4, and outlines their advantages and drawbacks. The nanocomposite-photocatalysts ZnO and CdS are compared with reduced graphene oxide (rGO), a rapidly growing materials system. The authors describe how the photocatalytic activity of known nanomaterials can be improved by modifying the structural and optical properties (i.e., phase composition). Introductory portion of the book includes a brief survey of all different kinds of heterogeneous photocatalysts Discusses the possible photocatalysis mechanism occurring during the degradation of different toxic pollutants Provides the photoelectrochemical measurement for synthesized catalysts, supporting the effective transportation of photoelectrons resulting into better catalytic properties

Nanostructured Materials for Next Generation Energy Storage and Conversion Book

Nanostructured Materials for Next Generation Energy Storage and Conversion


  • Author : Ying-Pin Chen
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-05-31
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 349
  • ISBN 10 : 9783662535141

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Nanostructured Materials for Next Generation Energy Storage and Conversion Book Description :

Volume 1 of a 4-volume series is a concise, authoritative and an eminently readable and enjoyable experience related to hydrogen production, storage and usage for portable and stationary power. Although the major focus is on hydrogen, discussion of fossil fuels and nuclear power is also presented where appropriate. This monograph is written by recognized experts in the field, and is both timely and appropriate as this decade will see application of hydrogen as an energy carrier, for example in transportation sector. The world's reliance on fossil fuels is due to the ever growing need for energy to sustain life and on-going progress; however exploitation also brings consequences such as emission of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur dioxides into the atmosphere. The collective influence of these photochemical gases is production of acid rain and an alternation of global temperatures, leading to record high temperatures in many parts of the world. The fossil fuel is unsustainable and thus there is a critical need for alternative sustainable energy resources. One universal energy carrier is hydrogen, which is the focus of this volume. This book is suitable for those who work in the energy field as technical experts, including engineers and scientists, as well as managers, policy and decision-makers, environmentalists and consultants. Students and practitioners such as lectures, teachers, legislators and their aids in the field of energy will find this book invaluable and a practical handbook or guide in the field of sustainable energy with emphasis on hydrogen as an energy carrier.

Nanostructured Materials for Treating Aquatic Pollution Book

Nanostructured Materials for Treating Aquatic Pollution


  • Author : Gil Alberto Batista Gonçalves
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2019-11-21
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 306
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030337452

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Nanostructured Materials for Treating Aquatic Pollution Book Description :

This book report the advances in the synthesis of new nanomaterials for the remediation of natural waters, groundwaters, and wastewaters. The authors describe synthetic routes for the assembly of different nanomaterials for the removal of contaminants by adsorption, catalytic degradation, and antibacterial activity. The hazardous effects of nanomaterials in aquatic ecosystems are discussed. This book presents the trends in the development of advanced technologies available in the market based on nanomaterials for more efficient water remediation. The authors also discuss sustainable management of water resources according to the new technologies developed and the improved efficiency of remediation processes.

Current Developments in Photocatalysis and Photocatalytic Materials Book

Current Developments in Photocatalysis and Photocatalytic Materials


  • Author : Xinchen Wang
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2019-11-29
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 566
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128190036

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Current Developments in Photocatalysis and Photocatalytic Materials Book Description :

Photocatalytic materials can improve the efficiency and sustainability of processes and offer novel ways to address issues across a wide range of fields—from sustainable chemistry and energy production to environmental remediation. Current Developments in Photocatalysis and Photocatalytic Materials provides an overview of the latest advances in this field, offering insight into the chemistry and activity of the latest generation of photocatalytic materials. After an introduction to photocatalysis and photocatalytic materials, this book goes on to outline a wide selection of photocatalytic materials, not only covering typical metal oxide photocatalysts such as TiO2 but also exploring newly developed organic semiconducting photocatalysts, such as g-C3N4. Drawing on the experience of an expert team of contributors, Current Developments in Photocatalysis and Photocatalytic Materials highlights the new horizons of photocatalysis, in which photocatalytic materials will come to play an important role in our day-to-day lives. Reviews developments in both organic- and inorganic-based materials for use in photocatalysis Presents the fundamental chemistry and activity of a broad range of key photocatalytic materials, including both typical and novel materials Highlights the role photocatalytic materials can play in sustainable applications

Advanced Catalytic Materials Book

Advanced Catalytic Materials


  • Author : Noreña Luis
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2016-02-03
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 498
  • ISBN 10 : 9789535122449

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Advanced Catalytic Materials Book Description :

Todays chemical industry processes worldwide largely depend on catalytic reactions and the desirable future evolution of this industry toward more selective products, more environmentally friendly products, more energy-efficient processes, a smaller use of hazardous reagents, and a better use of raw materials also largely involves the development of better catalysts and, specifically, purposely designed catalytic materials. The careful study and development of the new-generation catalysts involve relatively large groups of specialists in universities, research centers, and industries, joining forces from different scientific and technical disciplines. This book has put together recent, state-of-the-art topics on current trends in catalytic materials and consists of 16 chapters.

Titanium Dioxide Book

Titanium Dioxide


  • Author : Dongfang Yang
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2018-06-27
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 518
  • ISBN 10 : 9781789233261

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Titanium Dioxide Book Description :

Titanium dioxide is currently being used in many industrial products. It provides unique photocatalytic properties for water splitting and purification, bacterial inactivation, and organics degradation. It has also been widely used as the photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells and coatings for self-cleaning surfaces, biomedical implants, and nanomedicine. This book covers various aspects of titanium dioxide nanomaterials including their unique one-dimensional, two-dimensional, mesoporous, and hierarchical nanostructures and their synthetic methods such as sol-gel, hydrothermal, anodic oxidation, and electrophoretic deposition, as well as its key applications in environmental and energy sectors. Through these 24 chapters written by experts from the international scientific community, readers will have access to a comprehensive overview of the recent research and development findings on the titanium dioxide nanomaterials.

Photocatalysts in Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment Book

Photocatalysts in Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment


  • Author : Sadanand Pandey
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2020-06-03
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN 10 : 9781119631392

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Photocatalysts in Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment Book Description :

Photocatalysts in Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment comprehensively covers a range of topics aiming to promote the implementation of photocatalysis at large scale through provision of facile and green methods for catalysts synthesis and elucidation of pollutants degradation mechanisms. This book is divided into two main parts namely “Synthesis of effective photocatalysts” (Part I) and “Mechanisms of the photocatalytic degradation of various pollutants” (Part II). The first part focuses on the exploration of various strategies to synthesize sustainable and effective photocatalysts. The second part of the book provides an insights into the photocatalytic degradation mechanisms and pathways under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation, as well as the challenges faced by this technology and its future prospects.

Synthesis and Applications of Nanomaterials for Photocatalysis and Electrocatalysis Book

Synthesis and Applications of Nanomaterials for Photocatalysis and Electrocatalysis


  • Author : Giuseppe Cappelletti
  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release Date : 2020-05-12
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 212
  • ISBN 10 : 9783039288311

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Synthesis and Applications of Nanomaterials for Photocatalysis and Electrocatalysis Book Description :

Heterogeneous catalysis, exploiting photo- and electrochemical reactions, has expanded rapidly in recent decades, having undergone various developments, especially from both energetic and environmental points of view. Photocatalysis plays a pivotal role in such applications as water splitting and air/water remediation. Electrocatalysis can be found in a large array of research fields, including the development of electroanalytical sensors, wastewater treatment, and energy conversion devices (e.g., batteries, fuel and solar cells, etc.). Therefore, the fine control of the synthetic procedures, together with extensive physicochemical characterisations of the tailor-made catalytic nanomaterials, are of fundamental importance to achieving the desired results. The present book will include recent enhancements in oxide/metal nanoparticles for photocatalytic and electrocatalytic applications, especially in the fields of pollutants abatement and energy conversion.