Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence Book

Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence


  • Author : F. Scott Hall
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2016-08-17
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 362
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128026694

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Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence Excerpt :

Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence is the only book of its kind that addresses nicotine use and abuse in the context of negative reinforcement mechanisms. Written and edited by leading investigators in addiction, affective, genetic, and cognitive research, it provides researchers and advanced students with an overview of the clinical bases of these effects, allowing them to fully understand the various underlying dysfunctions that drive nicotine use in different individuals. In addition, this book examines animal models that researchers have utilized to investigate the biological bases of these dysfunctions. The combination of clinical and preclinical approaches to understanding nicotine dependence makes this book an invaluable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking to develop targeted treatments aimed at ameliorating symptoms of nicotine dependence, as well as identifying premorbid differences in affective or cognitive function. Provides a unique perspective on nicotine dependence that emphasizes negative reinforcement rather than positive reinforcement Examines psychiatric comorbidities and alleviation of withdrawal states as motivation for continued tobacco use Includes both clinical and preclinical perspectives Includes genetic and multi-neurotransmitter perspectives on nicotine use and withdrawal Emphasizes heterogeneity of underlying reasons for smoking, the need for multiple animal models to understand this heterogeneity, and the expectation of heterogeneous responses to potential treatments, underscoring the need for personalized therapeutics

Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence Book

Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence


  • Author : F. Scott Hall
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2016-09-01
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 362
  • ISBN 10 : 0128025743

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Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence Excerpt :

Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence is the only book of its kind that addresses nicotine use and abuse in the context of negative reinforcement mechanisms. Written and edited by leading investigators in addiction, affective, genetic, and cognitive research, it provides researchers and advanced students with an overview of the clinical bases of these effects, allowing them to fully understand the various underlying dysfunctions that drive nicotine use in different individuals. In addition, this book examines animal models that researchers have utilized to investigate the biological bases of these dysfunctions. The combination of clinical and preclinical approaches to understanding nicotine dependence makes this book an invaluable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking to develop targeted treatments aimed at ameliorating symptoms of nicotine dependence, as well as identifying premorbid differences in affective or cognitive function. Provides a unique perspective on nicotine dependence that emphasizes negative reinforcement rather than positive reinforcement Examines psychiatric comorbidities and alleviation of withdrawal states as motivation for continued tobacco use Includes both clinical and preclinical perspectives Includes genetic and multi-neurotransmitter perspectives on nicotine use and withdrawal Emphasizes heterogeneity of underlying reasons for smoking, the need for multiple animal models to understand this heterogeneity, and the expectation of heterogeneous responses to potential treatments, underscoring the need for personalized therapeutics

Anhedonia  Preclinical  Translational  and Clinical Integration Book

Anhedonia Preclinical Translational and Clinical Integration


  • Author : Diego A. Pizzagalli
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2022-08-08
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 526
  • ISBN 10 : 9783031096839

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Anhedonia Preclinical Translational and Clinical Integration Excerpt :

Anhedonia is a key symptom (and often risk factor) for various neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, post-traumatic stress disorders, and Parkinson's Disease, among others. Across disorders, anhedonia has been associated with worse disease course, including poor response to pharmacological, psychological and neurostimulation treatments as well as completed suicide. Mounting evidence emerging from preclinical and translational sciences has clarified that "anhedonia" can be parsed into partially independent subcomponents, including incentive motivation, consummatory pleasure, reward learning, and effort-based decision making, pointing to distinct neurobiological substrates that could underlie anhedonic phenotypes. Taking an integrative approach that emphasizes cross-species integration and dimensional conceptualization of mental illnesses (e.g., Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)), this book represents the most comprehensive evaluation, synthesis and integration of theories and empirical findings focused on anhedonia. Organized across five parts, the handbook starts with chapters on the history, etiology, and assessments of anhedonia (Part I), followed by a section on the role of anhedonia in psychiatric and neurological disorders (Part II). Using the RDoC Matrix as a guide, Part III presents chapters synthetizing preclinical and clinical findings on different reward processing subdomains (e.g., reward responsiveness, reward valuation, reward learning). Part IV is focused on selected special topics, including historical and current perspectives on the transdiagnostic nature and importance of social anhedonia, the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of anhedonia, the use of computational modeling to “dissect” anhedonia and improve its understanding, and links between anhedonia and suicide. Finally, Part V includes chapters on pharmacological, psychological and neurostimulation treatments for anhedonia.

Sleep and Health Book

Sleep and Health


  • Author : Michael Grandner
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-04-17
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 531
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128153741

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Sleep and Health Excerpt :

Sleep and Health provides an accessible yet comprehensive overview of the relationship between sleep and health at the individual, community and population levels, as well as a discussion of the implications for public health, public policy and interventions. Based on a firm foundation in many areas of sleep health research, this text further provides introductions to each sub-area of the field and a summary of the current research for each area. This book serves as a resource for those interested in learning about the growing field of sleep health research, including sections on social determinants, cardiovascular disease, cognitive functioning, health behavior theory, smoking, and more. Highlights the important role of sleep across a wide range of topic areas Addresses important topics such as sleep disparities, sleep and cardiometabolic disease risk, real-world effects of sleep deprivation, and public policy implications of poor sleep Contains accessible reviews that point to relevant literature in often-overlooked areas, serving as a helpful guide to all relevant information on this broad topic area

Memory Systems of the Addicted Brain  The Underestimated Role of Drug Induced Cognitive Biases in Addiction and Its Treatment Book

Memory Systems of the Addicted Brain The Underestimated Role of Drug Induced Cognitive Biases in Addiction and Its Treatment


  • Author : Vincent David
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2018-06-08
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 163
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889454877

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Memory Systems of the Addicted Brain The Underestimated Role of Drug Induced Cognitive Biases in Addiction and Its Treatment Excerpt :

Drug addiction may be viewed as a form of learning during which strong associations linking actions to drug-seeking are expressed as persistent stimulus–response habits, thereby maintaining a vulnerability to relapse. Disrupting cue–drug memory could be an efficient strategy to reduce the strength of cues in motivating drug-taking behavior. Upon reactivation, these memories undergo a reconsolidation process that can be blocked pharmacologically, providing an opportunity to prevent the powerful control of drug cues on behavior. This conceptually elegant approach still calls for more experimental data. However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that drug taking not only accelerates habit forming, but has long-lasting effects on interactions between memory systems eventually leading to a functional imbalance. The dorsal part of the striatum plays a critical role in habit/procedural learning, whereas the hippocampal memory system encodes relationships between events and their later flexible use. Both humans and rodents studies support the view that the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum interact in either a cooperative or competitive manner during learning, the prefrontal cortex being involved in the selection of an appropriate learning strategy. Chronic drug consumption biases normal interactions between these memory systems. For instance, drug-experienced rodents tend to use preferentially striatum-dependent learning strategies in navigational tasks. These persistent effects seem to occur at cellular, neurophysiological and behavioral levels to promote specific, striatal-dependent forms of learning, to the detriment of spatial/declarative, hippocampal-dependent and more flexible types of memory. Whether cue sensitive and response learners, in contrast to spatial learners, could be prone to drug addiction is an intriguing hypothesis which clearly deserves to be further explored. A loss of flexibility may be uncovered also by imposing changing rules on the su

How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease Book

How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : U.S. Government Printing Office
  • Release Date : 2010
  • Genre: Health & Fitness
  • Pages : 728
  • ISBN 10 : UCSD:31822037817723

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How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease Excerpt :

This report considers the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may underlie the pathogenicity of tobacco smoke. Many Surgeon General's reports have considered research findings on mechanisms in assessing the biological plausibility of associations observed in epidemiologic studies. Mechanisms of disease are important because they may provide plausibility, which is one of the guideline criteria for assessing evidence on causation. This report specifically reviews the evidence on the potential mechanisms by which smoking causes diseases and considers whether a mechanism is likely to be operative in the production of human disease by tobacco smoke. This evidence is relevant to understanding how smoking causes disease, to identifying those who may be particularly susceptible, and to assessing the potential risks of tobacco products.

Neural Mechanisms of Addiction Book

Neural Mechanisms of Addiction


  • Author : Mary Torregrossa
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2018-08-24
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 306
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128123317

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Neural Mechanisms of Addiction Excerpt :

Neural Mechanisms of Addiction is the only book available that synthesizes the latest research in the field into a single, accessible resource covering all aspects of how addiction develops and persists in the brain. The book summarizes our most recent understanding on the neural mechanisms underlying addiction. It also examines numerous biobehavioral aspects of addiction disorders, such as reinforcement learning, reward, cognitive dysfunction, stress, and sleep and circadian rhythms that are not covered in any other publication. Readers with find the most up-to-date information on which to build a foundation for their future research in this expanding field. Combining chapters from leading researchers and thought leaders, this book is an indispensable guide for students and investigators engaged in addiction research. Transcends multiple neural, neurochemical and behavioral domains Summarizes advances in the field of addiction research since the advent of optogenetics Discusses the most current, leading theories of addiction, including molecular mechanisms and dopamine mechanisms

Neuroscience of Nicotine Book

Neuroscience of Nicotine


  • Author : Victor R. Preedy
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-03-20
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 566
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128130360

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Neuroscience of Nicotine Excerpt :

Neuroscience of Nicotine: Mechanisms and Treatment presents the fundamental information necessary for a thorough understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of nicotine addiction and its effects on the brain. Offering thorough coverage of all aspects of nicotine research, treatment, policy and prevention, and containing contributions from internationally recognized experts, the book provides students, early-career researchers, and investigators at all levels with a fundamental introduction to all aspects of nicotine misuse. With an estimated one billion individuals worldwide classified as tobacco users—and tobacco use often being synonymous with nicotine addiction—nicotine is one of the world’s most common addictive substances, and a frequent comorbidity of misuse of other common addictive substances. Nicotine alters a variety of neurological processes, from molecular biology, to cognition, and quitting is exceedingly difficult because of the number of withdrawal symptoms that accompany the process. Integrates cutting-edge research on the pharmacological, cellular and molecular aspects of nicotine use, along with its effects on neurobiological function Discusses nicotine use as a component of dual-use and poly addictions and outlines numerous screening and treatment strategies for misuse Covers both the physical and psychological effects of nicotine use and withdrawal to provide a fully-formed view of nicotine dependency and its effects

Psychopharmacology Book

Psychopharmacology


  • Author : Jerry Meyer
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2022-05-25
  • Genre: Psychotropic drugs
  • Pages : 841
  • ISBN 10 : 9781605359878

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Psychopharmacology Excerpt :

Unique in its breadth of coverage ranging from historical accounts of drug use to clinical and preclinical behavioral studies, Psychopharmacology is appropriate for undergraduates studying the relationships between the behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs and their mechanisms of action. 1. Chapter-opening vignettes foster student engagement 2. Breakout boxes present novel, and, in some cases, controversial topics for special discussion. Box themes include: History of Psychopharmacology; Pharmacology in Action; Clinical Applications; Of Special Interest; and The Cutting Edge. 3. The book is extensively illustrated with full-color photographs and line art depicting important concepts and experimental data 4. Section Summaries highlight key concepts from the section of text just read 5. Chapter-ending Recommended Readings offer suggestions for further study And the enhanced eBook provides an interactive learning pathway through the content. Meyer, Psychopharmacology and it's accompanying enhanced ebook provide engaging features like self-study questions, and clinical case studies, cutting edge research, and applied pharmacology to keep students focused on the content, while providing the scientific depth, breadth, and rigor required for the course.

Posttraumatic Stress and Substance Use Disorders Book

Posttraumatic Stress and Substance Use Disorders


  • Author : Anka A. Vujanovic
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2019-04-23
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Pages : 376
  • ISBN 10 : 9781315442624

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Posttraumatic Stress and Substance Use Disorders Excerpt :

Posttraumatic Stress and Substance Use Disorders summarizes the state of the field from a biopsychosocial perspective, addressing key domains of interest to clinicians, students, instructors, and researchers. This book is a valuable resource and reference guide for multidisciplinary practitioners and scientists interested in the evidence-based assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress and substance use disorders. Chapters written by leaders in the field cover the latest research on assessment, diagnosis, evidence-based treatments, future directions, and much more.

Biomarkers in Psychiatry Book

Biomarkers in Psychiatry


  • Author : Judith Pratt
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2019-01-05
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 437
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319996424

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Biomarkers in Psychiatry Excerpt :

This volume addresses one of the Holy Grails in Psychiatry, namely the evidence for and potential to adopt ‘Biomarkers’ for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment responses in mental health conditions. It meshes together state of the art research from international renowned pre-clinical and clinical scientists to illustrate how the fields of anxiety disorders, depression, psychotic disorders, and autism spectrum disorder have advanced in recent years.

Health and Academic Achievement Book

Health and Academic Achievement


  • Author : Blandina Bernal-Morales
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2018-09-19
  • Genre: Education
  • Pages : 268
  • ISBN 10 : 9781789237306

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Health and Academic Achievement Excerpt :

Emotional, physical and social well-being describe human health from birth. Good health goes hand in hand with the ability to handle stress for the future. However, biological factors such as diet, life experiences such as drug abuse, bullying, burnout and social factors such as family and community support at the school stage tend to mold health problems, affecting academic achievements. This book is a compilation of current scientific information about the challenges that students, families and teachers face regarding health and academic achievements. Contributions also relate to how physical activity, psychosocial support and other interventions can be made to understand resilience and vulnerability to school desertion. This book will be of interest to readers from broad professional fields, non-specialist readers, and those involved in education policy.

The Neuropharmacology of Nicotine Dependence Book

The Neuropharmacology of Nicotine Dependence


  • Author : David J.K. Balfour
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-01-31
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 172
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319134826

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The Neuropharmacology of Nicotine Dependence Excerpt :

The primary purpose of this book and its companion volume The Behavioral Genetics of Nicotine and Tobacco is to explore the ways in which recent studies on nicotine and its role in tobacco addiction have opened our eyes to the psychopharmacological properties of this unique and fascinating drug. While The Behavioral Genetics of Nicotine and Tobacco considers the molecular and genetic factors which influence behavioral responses to nicotine and how these may impact on the role of nicotine in tobacco dependence, the present book focuses on the complex neural and psychological mechanisms that mediate nicotine dependence in experimental animal models and their relationship to tobacco addiction in humans. These volumes will provide readers a contemporary overview of current research on nicotine psychopharmacology and its role in tobacco dependence from leaders in this field of researchand will hopefully prove valuable to those who are developing their own research programmes in this important topic.