Neuroscience of Preference and Choice Book

Neuroscience of Preference and Choice


  • Author : Raymond Dolan
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2012
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN 10 : 9780123814319

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Neuroscience of Preference and Choice Excerpt :

One of the most pressing questions in neuroscience, psychology and economics today is how does the brain generate preferences and make choices? With a unique interdisciplinary approach, this volume is among the first to explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating the generation of the preferences that guide choice. From preferences determining mundane purchases, to social preferences influencing mating choice, through to moral decisions, the authors adopt diverse approaches to answer the question. Chapters explore the instability of preferences and the common neural processes that occur across preferences. Edited by one of the world's most renowned cognitive neuroscientists, each chapter is authored by an expert in the field, with a host of international contributors. Emphasis on common process underlying preference generation makes material applicable to a variety of disciplines - neuroscience, psychology, economics, law, philosophy, etc. Offers specific focus on how preferences are generated to guide decision making, carefully examining one aspect of the broad field of neuroeconomics and complementing existing volumes Features outstanding, international scholarship, with chapters written by an expert in the topic area

Methods of Behavior Analysis in Neuroscience Book

Methods of Behavior Analysis in Neuroscience


  • Author : Jerry J. Buccafusco
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2000-08-29
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN 10 : 9781420041811

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Methods of Behavior Analysis in Neuroscience Excerpt :

Using the most well-studied behavioral analyses of animal subjects to promote a better understanding of the effects of disease and the effects of new therapeutic treatments on human cognition, Methods of Behavior Analysis in Neuroscience provides a reference manual for molecular and cellular research scientists in both academia and the pharmaceutic

Does Choice Change Preference  Book

Does Choice Change Preference


  • Author : Carlos Alós-Ferrer
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2018
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 25
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:1304332217

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Does Choice Change Preference Excerpt :

Do choices feed back into and alter preferences? Widespread evidence arising in psychology and neuroscience shows that preferences change in response to own choices, a phenomenon typically explained through cognitive dissonance. The evidence, however, presents serious shortcomings casting doubts on its relevance for economics. We present two experiments addressing these shortcomings. First, participants made standard decisions under risk rather than facing unfamiliar alternatives. Second, all choices were incentivized. Third, our novel experimental design avoids recently-exposed problems of experiments in psychology. The results show unsystematic effects which differ from and challenge conventional wisdom outside economics.

The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics Book

The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics


  • Author : Andrew Caplin
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2010-06-25
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN 10 : 0199890110

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The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics Excerpt :

The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics: A Handbook is the first book in a new series by Andrew Caplin and Andrew Schotter. There is currently no guide available on the rapidly changing methodological frontiers of the field of economics. Economists have been introducing new theories and new sources of data at a remarkable rate in recent years, and there are widely divergent views both on how productive these expansions have been in the past, and how best to make progress in the future. The speed of these changes has left economists ill at ease, and has created a backlash against new methods. The series will debate these critical issues, allowing proponents of a particular research method to present proposals in a safe yet critical context, with alternatives being clarified. This first volume, written by some of the most prominent researchers in the discipline, reflects the challenges that are opened by new research opportunities. The goal of the current volume and the series it presages, is to formally open a dialog on methodology. The editors' conviction is that such a debate will rebound to the benefit of social science in general, and economics in particular. The issues under discussion strike to the very heart of the social scientific enterprise. This work is of tremendous importance to all who are interested in the contributions that academic research can make not only to our scientific understanding, but also to matters of policy.

The Paradox of Choice Book
Score: 3.5
From 35 Ratings

The Paradox of Choice


  • Author : Barry Schwartz
  • Publisher : Harper Collins
  • Release Date : 2009-10-13
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN 10 : 9780061748998

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The Paradox of Choice Excerpt :

Whether we're buying a pair of jeans, ordering a cup of coffee, selecting a long-distance carrier, applying to college, choosing a doctor, or setting up a 401(k), everyday decisions—both big and small—have become increasingly complex due to the overwhelming abundance of choice with which we are presented. As Americans, we assume that more choice means better options and greater satisfaction. But beware of excessive choice: choice overload can make you question the decisions you make before you even make them, it can set you up for unrealistically high expectations, and it can make you blame yourself for any and all failures. In the long run, this can lead to decision-making paralysis, anxiety, and perpetual stress. And, in a culture that tells us that there is no excuse for falling short of perfection when your options are limitless, too much choice can lead to clinical depression. In The Paradox of Choice, Barry Schwartz explains at what point choice—the hallmark of individual freedom and self-determination that we so cherish—becomes detrimental to our psychological and emotional well-being. In accessible, engaging, and anecdotal prose, Schwartz shows how the dramatic explosion in choice—from the mundane to the profound challenges of balancing career, family, and individual needs—has paradoxically become a problem instead of a solution. Schwartz also shows how our obsession with choice encourages us to seek that which makes us feel worse. By synthesizing current research in the social sciences, Schwartz makes the counter intuitive case that eliminating choices can greatly reduce the stress, anxiety, and busyness of our lives. He offers eleven practical steps on how to limit choices to a manageable number, have the discipline to focus on those that are important and ignore the rest, and ultimately derive greater satisfaction from the choices you have to make.

Decision Making  Affect  and Learning Book

Decision Making Affect and Learning


  • Author : Mauricio R. Delgado
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2011-03-24
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 555
  • ISBN 10 : 9780199600434

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Decision Making Affect and Learning Excerpt :

Papers originally presented at a workshop conference convened in Stowe, Vermont on July 13-17 2008, as part of the Attention and Peformance series.

Biophysical Measurement in Experimental Social Science Research Book

Biophysical Measurement in Experimental Social Science Research


  • Author : Gigi Foster
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-02-08
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 359
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128130933

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Biophysical Measurement in Experimental Social Science Research Excerpt :

Biophysical Measurement in Experimental Social Science Research: Theory and Practice demonstrates the use of biophysical measurement in laboratory-based experimental social science research and the ways biophysical measures can inform analyses of human behavior. Noting the practical limitations of laboratory-based biophysical measurement, its contributors provide hands-on guidance about biophysical measurement devices. Its Introductory and concluding chapters address ethics, measurement options, and historical and scientific contexts. Highlighting examples of device adoption in experimental social science lab settings, this book makes these tools understandable and accessible to all. Demonstrates the strengths and limitations of tools in both research objectives and practicality Provides hands-on guidance for device usage and data implementation, integration and assessment Compares and contrasts the uses of biophysical data in research objectives and disciplines

The Marketplace of Attention Book

The Marketplace of Attention


  • Author : James G. Webster
  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release Date : 2016-09-02
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN 10 : 9780262529891

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The Marketplace of Attention Excerpt :

How do media find an audience when there is an endless supply of content but a limited supply of public attention? Feature films, television shows, homemade videos, tweets, blogs, and breaking news: digital media offer an always-accessible, apparently inexhaustible supply of entertainment and information. Although choices seems endless, public attention is not. How do digital media find the audiences they need in an era of infinite choice? In The Marketplace of Attention, James Webster explains how audiences take shape in the digital age. Webster describes the factors that create audiences, including the preferences and habits of media users, the role of social networks, the resources and strategies of media providers, and the growing impact of media measures—from ratings to user recommendations. He incorporates these factors into one comprehensive framework: the marketplace of attention. In doing so, he shows that the marketplace works in ways that belie our greatest hopes and fears about digital media. Some observers claim that digital media empower a new participatory culture; others fear that digital media encourage users to retreat to isolated enclaves. Webster shows that public attention is at once diverse and concentrated—that users move across a variety of outlets, producing high levels of audience overlap. So although audiences are fragmented in ways that would astonish midcentury broadcasting executives, Webster argues that this doesn't signal polarization. He questions whether our preferences are immune from media influence, and he describes how our encounters with media might change our tastes. In the digital era's marketplace of attention, Webster claims, we typically encounter ideas that cut across our predispositions. In the process, we will remake the marketplace of ideas and reshape the twenty-first century public sphere.

Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering Book

Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering


  • Author : Hasan Ayaz
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2019-06-11
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 515
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030204730

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Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering Excerpt :

This book offers a broad perspective on the field of cognitive engineering and neuroergonomics, covering emerging practices and future trends toward the harmonious integration of human operators and computer systems. It presents novel theoretical findings on mental workload and stress, activity theory, human reliability, error and risk, and neuroergonomic measures alike, together with a wealth of cutting-edge applications. Further, the book describes key advances in our understanding of cognitive processes, including mechanisms of perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, with a special emphasis on their role in interactions between humans and other elements of computer-based systems. Based on the AHFE 2019 affiliated conference on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, held on July 24-28, 2019, in Washington D.C., USA, it provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current challenges in cognitive computing and factors influencing human performance.

Can You Learn to Be Lucky  Book
Score: 4
From 1 Ratings

Can You Learn to Be Lucky


  • Author : Karla Starr
  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Release Date : 2018-08-14
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN 10 : 9780698139817

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Can You Learn to Be Lucky Excerpt :

“I don't know when I've been so wowed by a new author” –Chip Health, co-author of The Power of Moments and Switch A talented journalist reveals the hidden patterns behind what we call "luck" -- and shows us how we can all improve outcomes despite life’s inevitable randomness. "Do you believe in luck?" is a polarizing question, one you might ask on a first date. Some of us believe that we make our own luck. Others see inequality everywhere and think that everyone’s fate is at the whim of the cosmos. Karla Starr has a third answer: unlucky, "random" outcomes have predictable effects on our behavior that often make us act in self-defeating ways without even realizing it. In this groundbreaking book, Starr traces wealth, health, and happiness back to subconscious neurological processes, blind cultural assumptions, and tiny details you're in the habit of overlooking. Each chapter reveals how we can cultivate personal strengths to overcome life’s unlucky patterns. For instance: • Everyone has free access to that magic productivity app—motivation. The problem? It isn’t evenly distributed. What lucky accidents of history explain patterns behind why certain groups of people are more motivated in some situations than others? • If you look like an underperforming employee, your resume can't override the gut-level assumptions that a potential boss will make from your LinkedIn photo. How can we make sure that someone’s first impression is favorable? • Just as people use irrelevant traits to make assumptions about your intelligence, kindness, and trustworthiness, we also make inaccurate snap judgments. How do these judgments affect our interactions, and what should we assume about others to maximize our odds of having lucky encounters? We don’t always realize when the world's invisible biases work to our advantage or recognize how much of a role we play in our own lack of luck. By ending the guessing game about how luck works, Starr allows you to improve

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation Book

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation


  • Author : Mimi Bong, 3rd
  • Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
  • Release Date : 2016-11-02
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN 10 : 9781786354747

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Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation Excerpt :

The phenomena of motivation cannot be studied separately as an independent research topic because motivation is highly interrelated to cognition, emotion, learning, and decision-making process. The overarching aim of this volume, therefore, is to provide new insight into a unified grand theory of motivation by integrating noteworthy neuroscience research findings on motivation. This volume is dedicated to advancing our understanding of brain mechanisms of underlying various motivational phenomena, including reward, approach, autonomy, intrinsic motivation, learning, effort, curiosity, and self-control. The volume is divided into four parts: The first part introduces classical but fundamental issues such as reward, approach, and individual differences. The second part deals with intrinsic motivation including autonomy and curiosity. The third one examines recent approaches on the interface between motivation and cognition in learning and decision-making. The last part focuses on practically significant issues pertaining to self-regulation development

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease Book

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease


  • Author : Dorina Papageorgiou
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release Date : 2014-05-31
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 680
  • ISBN 10 : 9789535112037

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Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease Excerpt :

The brain is the most complex computational device we know, consisting of highly interacting and redundant networks of areas, supporting specific brain functions. The rules by which these areas organize themselves to perform specific computations have only now started to be uncovered. Advances in non-invasive neuroimaging technologies have revolutionized our understanding of the functional anatomy of cortical circuits in health and disease states, which is the focus of this book. The first section of this book focuses on methodological issues, such as combining functional MRI technology with other brain imaging modalities. The second section examines the application of brain neuroimaging to understand cognitive, visual, auditory, motor and decision-making networks, as well as neurological diseases. The use of non-invasive neuroimaging technologies will continue to stimulate an exponential growth in understanding basic brain processes, largely as a result of sustained advances in neuroimaging methods and applications.

Neuroeconomics Book

Neuroeconomics


  • Author : Peter Politser
  • Publisher : OUP USA
  • Release Date : 2008
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 219
  • ISBN 10 : 9780195305821

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Neuroeconomics Excerpt :

An introduction to the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics, this book brings together the essential concepts the discipline draws on from psychology, neuroscience and economics.

The Index Number Problem Book

The Index Number Problem


  • Author : Sydney Afriat
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release Date : 2014-02-27
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN 10 : 9780191649523

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The Index Number Problem Excerpt :

A theft amounting to £1 was a capital offence in 1260 and a judge in 1610 affirmed the law could not then be applied since £1 was no longer what it was. Such association of money with a date is well recognized for its importance in very many connections. Thus arises the need to know how to convert an amount at one date into the right amount at another date: in other words, a price index. The longstanding question concerning how such an index should be constructed is known as 'The Index Number Problem'. The ordinary consumer price index represents a practical response to this need. However the search for a true price index has given rise to extensive thought and theory to which an impressive number of economists have each contributed a word, or volume. However, there have been hold-ups at a basic level, which are addressed in this book. The approach brings the subject into involvement with utility construction on the basis of finite data, in a form referred to as 'Afriat's Theorem' but now with utility subject to constant (and also possibly approximate) returns.

Neurobiology of Choice Book

Neurobiology of Choice


  • Author : Daeyeol Lee
  • Publisher : Frontiers E-books
  • Release Date : 2012-01-01
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889190119

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Neurobiology of Choice Excerpt :

Research on economic decision-making seeks to understand how subjects choose between plans of action (lotteries, gambles, prospects) that have economic consequences. The key difficulty in making such decisions is that typically no plan of action available to the decision-maker guarantees a specific outcome, rather, consequences are risky or uncertain. More recently, researchers in psychology, behavioral and computational neuroscience and psychology have started to apply these theoretical principles to studying choice behavior and its neural basis in the laboratory, for instance in electrophysiological studies of animals making choices for primary reward such as juice and neuroimaging studies of humans making choices for money. Moreover, researchers across all these fields are, in parallel, studying how decisions are guided by learning and how the computations relevant to decisions and choices are represented neurally. This emerging field of theoretically grounded decision neuroscience is now known as "neuroeconomics." With this Research Topic, we aim to solicit contributions from researchers from the fields of neurobiology, behavioral and computational neuroscience and economics which discuss the neural computations underlying decision-making and adaptive behavior.