Phenotypic Switching Book

Phenotypic Switching


  • Author : Herbert Levine
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2020-06-10
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 762
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128179970

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Phenotypic Switching Excerpt :

Phenotypic Switching: Implications in Biology and Medicine provides a comprehensive examination of phenotypic switching across biological systems, including underlying mechanisms, evolutionary significance, and its role in biomedical science. Contributions from international leaders discuss conceptual and theoretical aspects of phenotypic plasticity, its influence over biological development, differentiation, biodiversity, and potential applications in cancer therapy, regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy, among other treatments. Chapters discuss fundamental mechanisms of phenotypic switching, including transition states, cell fate decisions, epigenetic factors, stochasticity, protein-based inheritance, specific areas of human development and disease relevance, phenotypic plasticity in melanoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, non-genetic heterogeneity in cancer, hepatitis C, and more. This book is essential for active researchers, basic and translational scientists, clinicians, postgraduates and students in genetics, human genomics, pathology, bioinformatics, developmental biology, evolutionary biology and adaptive opportunities in yeast. Thoroughly addresses the conceptual, experimental and translational aspects that underlie phenotypic plasticity Emphasizes quantitative approaches, nonlinear dynamics, mechanistic insights and key methodologies to advance phenotypic plasticity studies Features a diverse range of chapter contributions from international leaders in the field

A Mechanistic and Functional Study of White opaque Phenotypic Switching in Candida Albicans Book

A Mechanistic and Functional Study of White opaque Phenotypic Switching in Candida Albicans


  • Author : Mathew Gregory Miller
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2005
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 340
  • ISBN 10 : UCAL:X85608

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A Mechanistic and Functional Study of White opaque Phenotypic Switching in Candida Albicans Excerpt :

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. It is a harmless commensal in healthy individuals, but it can cause serious infections in immune-compromised hosts. C. albicans undergoes a meta-stable and reversible switch between two distinct cell types known as white and opaque. The role of white-opaque switching in the biology of C. albicans was originally not well understood. We discovered an unexpected relationship between white-opaque switching and the sexual cycle of C. albicans . The mating type locus of C. albicans (MTL) encodes transcriptional regulatory proteins that regulate mating. We demonstrated that two MTL -encoded homeodomain proteins, a 1 and alpha2, work together to repress white-opaque switching in C. albicans . The observations that the MTL locus controlled both mating and white-opaque switching led us to hypothesize that opaque cells played a role in mating. Indeed, we found that opaque cells mate one million times more efficiently than do white cells. Additionally, opaque cells, but not white cells, developed specialized mating projections when exposed to mating pheromone. Thus, opaque cells are a specialized mating form of C. albicans . As white cells are generally more robust in a mammalian host than opaque cells, this strategy allows the organism to survive the rigors of life within a mammalian host, while generating a small population of mating-competent cells. The mechanism that controls white-opaque switching is not well understood. To better understand the mechanism, we investigated the regulation of white-opaque switching by a 1-alpha2. We demonstrated that a 1-alpha2 regulates white-opaque switching by destabilizing opaque cells, and we monitored gene expression during the transition from opaque to white using DNA microarrays. We used a candidate approach to identify additional regulators of white-opaque switching among genes enriched for their expression in the opaque phase. We identified two potent positive regulators of whit

Molecular Biology of Fungal Development Book

Molecular Biology of Fungal Development


  • Author : Heinz D. Osiewacz
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2002-05-07
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 608
  • ISBN 10 : 9780824744526

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Molecular Biology of Fungal Development Excerpt :

This text gives an overview of the fundamental aspects of molecular fungal development in one comprehensive volume, highlighting different elements in the maturational and reproductive cycles of selected fungal taxa.

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer Book

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer


  • Author : Petranel Theresa Ferrao
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2015-09-17
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889196623

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Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer Excerpt :

The process of Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) is known to result in a phenotype change in cells from a proliferative state to a more invasive state. EMT has been reported to drive the metastatic spread of various cancers and has also been associated with drug resistance to cytotoxics and targeted therapeutics. Recently phenotype switching akin to EMT has been reported in non-epithelial cancers such as metastatic melanoma. This process involves changes in EMT-Transcription Factors (EMT-TFs), suggesting that phenotype-switching may be common to several tumour types. It remains unclear as to whether the presence of both Epilthelial-like and Mesenchymal-like cells are a pre-requisite for phenotype switching within a tumour, how this heterogeneity is regulated, and if alteration of cell phenotype is sufficient to mediate migratory changes, or whether drivers of cell migration result in an associated phenotype switch in cancer cells. Similarly it has yet to be clarified if cells in an altered phenotype can be refractory to drug therapy or whether mediators of drug resistance induce a concurrent phenotypic change. Little is known today about the underlying genetic, epigenetic and transient changes that accompany this phenotypic switch and about the role for the tumor micro-environment in influencing it. Hence this is currently an area of speculation and keen interest in the Oncology field with wide-ranging translational implications. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we discuss our current understanding of these concepts in various cancer types including breast cancer, colorectal cancer and metastatic melanoma. This topic covers how these processes of cellular and phenotypic plasticity are regulated and how they relate to cancer initiation, progression, dormancy, metastases and response to cytotoxics or targeted therapies.

Growing Fungus Book
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Growing Fungus


  • Author : N.A. Gow
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2007-08-28
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 473
  • ISBN 10 : 9780585275765

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Growing Fungus Excerpt :

This book is about the growth and differentiation processes underlying the growth and differentia of filamentous fungi. The impetus for this work tion of fungi and that it provides the reader with stems from our perception that the coverage of adequate source references for further information. this highly diverse and important group of organ It is estimated conservatively that there are more isms has been neglected in recent years, despite than 1. 5 million species of fungi - more than five many significant advances in our understanding of times the number of vascular plants and second the underlying mechanisms of growth. This situ only in diversity to the insects. The extreme ation contrasts with the treatment of Saccharomyces diversity of form in the fungi has always been a cerevisiae, for example, which because of its ideal source of inspiration for mycologists. This book is properties for genetic analyses, has established concerned mainly with those systems that have itself as the model eukaryote for the analysis of the been well characterized from the biochemical, cell cycle, and basic studies of biochemical and physiological or genetic points of view. Although genetic regulation. This book does not deal with it has not been possible to illustrate the breadth of the detailed growth phYSiology of S.

Handbook of Epigenetics Book

Handbook of Epigenetics


  • Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2017-07-10
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 682
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128054772

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Handbook of Epigenetics Excerpt :

Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive analysis of epigenetics, from basic biology, to clinical application. Epigenetics is considered by many to be the new genetics in that many biological phenomena are controlled, not through gene mutations, but rather through reversible and heritable epigenetic processes. These epigenetic processes range from DNA methylation to prions. The biological processes impacted by epigenetics are vast and encompass effects in lower organisms and humans that include tissue and organ regeneration, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cell differentiation, genomic imprinting, and aging. The first edition of this important work received excellent reviews; the second edition continues its comprehensive coverage adding more current research and new topics based on customer and reader reviews, including new discoveries, approved therapeutics, and clinical trials. From molecular mechanisms and epigenetic technology, to discoveries in human disease and clinical epigenetics, the nature and applications of the science is presented for those with interests ranging from the fundamental basis of epigenetics, to therapeutic interventions for epigenetic-based disorders. Timely and comprehensive collection of fully up-to-date reviews on epigenetics that are organized into one volume and written by leading figures in the field Covers the latest advances in many different areas of epigenetics, ranging from basic aspects, to technologies, to clinical medicine Written at a verbal and technical level that can be understood by scientists and college students Updated to include new epigenetic discoveries, newly approved therapeutics, and clinical trials

Stochastic Processes in Cell Biology Book

Stochastic Processes in Cell Biology


  • Author : Paul C. Bressloff
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2021
  • Genre: Biomathematics
  • Pages : 724
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030725198

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Stochastic Processes in Cell Biology Excerpt :

This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology. In the second edition the material has been significantly expanded, particularly within the context of nonequilibrium and self-organizing systems. Given the amount of additional material, the book has been divided into two volumes, with volume I mainly covering molecular processes and volume II focusing on cellular processes. A wide range of biological topics are covered in the new edition, including stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, molecular motors, stochastic gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, epigenetics, normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastically-gated diffusion, active intracellular transport, signal transduction, cell sensing, bacterial chemotaxis, intracellular pattern formation, cell polarization, cell mechanics, biological polymers and membranes, nuclear structure and dynamics, biological condensates, molecular aggregation and nucleation, cellular length control, cell mitosis, cell motility, cell adhesion, cytoneme-based morphogenesis, bacterial growth, and quorum sensing. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic and nonequilibrium processes Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, stochastic calculus, master equations and jump Markov processes, birth-death processes, Poisson processes, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, queuing and renewal theory, narrow capture and escape, extreme statistics, search processes and stochastic resetting, exclusion processes, WKB methods, large deviation theory, path integrals, martingales and branching processes, numerical methods, linear response theory, phase separation, fluctuation-dissipation theorems, age-structured models, and statistical field theory. This text is primarily aimed at graduate students and researchers working in mathematical biology, statistical and bi

Dancing Protein Clouds  Intrinsically Disordered Proteins in the Norm and Pathology Book

Dancing Protein Clouds Intrinsically Disordered Proteins in the Norm and Pathology


  • Author : Vladimir Uversky
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2019-09-15
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 424
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128168516

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Dancing Protein Clouds Intrinsically Disordered Proteins in the Norm and Pathology Excerpt :

"Dancing protein clouds: Intrinsically disordered proteins in the norm and pathology" represents a set of selected studies on a variety of research topics related to intrinsically disordered proteins. Topics in this update include structural and functional characterization of several important intrinsically disordered proteins, such as 14-3-3 proteins and their partners, as well as proteins from muscle sarcomere; representation of intrinsic disorder-related concept of protein structure-function continuum; discussion of the role of intrinsic disorder in phenotypic switching; consideration of the role of intrinsically disordered proteins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer; discussion of the roles of intrinsic disorder in functional amyloids; demonstration of the usefulness of the analysis of translational diffusion of unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins; consideration of various computational tools for evaluation of functions of intrinsically disordered regions; and discussion of the role of shear stress in the amyloid formation of intrinsically disordered regions in the brain. Provides some recent studies on the intrinsically disordered proteins and their functions, as well as on the involvement of intrinsically disordered proteins in pthogenesis of various diseases Contains numerous illustrative materials (color figures, diagrams, and tables) to help the readers to delve in the information provided Includes contributions from recognized experts in the field

Emerging Trends in Cell and Gene Therapy Book

Emerging Trends in Cell and Gene Therapy


  • Author : Michael K. Danquah
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-06-14
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 705
  • ISBN 10 : 9781627034173

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Emerging Trends in Cell and Gene Therapy Excerpt :

Examples from various organs and diseases illustrate the potential benefit obtained when both therapeutic approaches are combined with delivery strategies. Representing the combined effort of several leading international research and clinical experts, this book, Emerging Trends in Cell and Gene Therapy, provides a complete account on and brings into sharp focus current trends and state-of-the-art in important areas at the interface of cell- and gene-based therapies. This book addresses the current fragmented understanding regarding these two research areas and fills the vast unmet educational need and interest of both students and researchers in academia and industry. Main features of the book: · Biological aspects of stem cell sources, differentiation and engineering. · Application of microfluidics to study stem cell dynamics · Potential clinical application of stem cells and gene therapy to specific human disease. · Utilization of biomaterials and stem cells in regenerative medicine with particular emphasis on spinal cord repair, ligament and bone tissue engineering. · Biomimetic multiscale topography for cell alignment.

Mechanisms of Vascular Disease Book

Mechanisms of Vascular Disease


  • Author : Robert Fitridge
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2020-07-30
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 733
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030436834

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Mechanisms of Vascular Disease Excerpt :

This extensively revised third edition provides a practically applicable guide to the pathophysiology, assessment and management of vascular disorders encountered in vascular surgical practice. It features detailed information on the latest developments in the pathophysiology of conditions including atherosclerosis, multi-organ failure, limb compartment syndromes and Raynaud’s phenomenon in a clear easy to digest format. Disorders such as reperfusion injuries, vasculitides, and aortic dissection are covered. Furthermore, key topics in vascular and endovascular practice such as radiation biology and radiation safety are also detailed. Each chapter contains a set of learning objectives and key references, enabling the reader to quickly identify key points. Mechanisms of Vascular Disease: A Textbook for Vascular Specialists comprehensively covers a variety of common and unusual pathophysiologies encountered in vascular surgery, and is an ideal resource for both the trainee, and practicing clinical vascular surgeon seeking an up-to-date resource on the topic.

Pseudomonas Book

Pseudomonas


  • Author : Juan-Luis Ramos
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2011-06-28
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 835
  • ISBN 10 : 9781441990860

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Pseudomonas Excerpt :

Pseudomonas comprises three volumes covering the biology of pseudomonads in a wide context, including the niches they inhabit, the taxonomic relations among members of this group, the molecular biology of gene expression in different niches and under different environmental conditions, the analysis of virulence traits in plants, animals and human pathogens as well as the determinants that make some strains useful for biotechnological applications and promotion of plant growth. There has been growing interest in pseudomonads and a particular urge to understand the biology underlying the complex metabolism of these ubiquitous microbes. These bacteria are capable of colonizing a wide range of niches, including the soil, the plant rhizosphere and phylosphere, and animal tissues; more recently they have attracted attention because of their capacity to form biofilms, a characteristic with potentially important medical and environmental implications. The three volumes cover the following topics: - Taxonomy, - Genomics, - Life styles, - Cell Architecture, - Virulence, - Regulation, - Macromolecules, - Alternative Respiratory Substrates, - Catabolism and Biotransformations. Pseudomonas will be of use to all researchers working on these bacteria, particularly those studying microbiology, plant crops, pathogenesis, and chemical engineering. Advanced students in biology, medicine and agronomy will also find these three volumes a valuable reference during their studies.

Endodontic Microbiology Book

Endodontic Microbiology


  • Author : Ashraf F. Fouad
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2017-01-24
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 472
  • ISBN 10 : 9781118975497

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Endodontic Microbiology Excerpt :

Endodontic Microbiology, Second Edition presents a comprehensive reference to the microbiology, pathogenesis, management, and healing of endodontic pathosis, emphasizing the importance of biological sciences in understanding and managing endodontic disease and its interaction with systemic health. Provides a major revision to the first book to focus on the problems related to microbes in the root canal and periapical tissues Updates current knowledge in endodontic pathosis, especially regarding next generation sequencing and microbial virulence Presents useful diagrams, images, radiographs, and annotated histological images to illustrate the concepts Emphasizes the importance of biological science in understanding and managing endodontic disease Includes contributions from the leading researchers and educators in the field

Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application  2011 Edition Book

Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application 2011 Edition


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
  • Release Date : 2012-01-09
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 260
  • ISBN 10 : 9781464923432

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Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application 2011 Edition Excerpt :

Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Extracellular Space. The editors have built Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Extracellular Space in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

The Physical Microbe Book

The Physical Microbe


  • Author : Stephen J. Hagen
  • Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
  • Release Date : 2017-10-01
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 111
  • ISBN 10 : 9781681745299

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The Physical Microbe Excerpt :

The new field of physical biology fuses biology and physics. New technologies have allowed researchers to observe the inner workings of the living cell, one cell at a time. With an abundance of new data collected on individual cells, including observations of individual molecules and their interactions, researchers are developing a quantitative, physics-based understanding of life at the molecular level. They are building detailed models of how cells use molecular circuits to gather and process information, signal to each other, manage noise and variability, and adapt to their environment. This book narrows down the scope of physical biology by focusing on the microbial cell. It explores the physical phenomena of noise, feedback, and variability that arise in the cellular information-processing circuits used by bacteria. It looks at the microbe from a physics perspective, to ask how the cell optimizes its function to live within the constraints of physics. It introduces a physical and information based -- as opposed to microbiological -- perspective on communication and signaling between microbes. The book is aimed at non-expert scientists who wish to understand some of the most important emerging themes of physical biology, and to see how they help us to understand the most basic forms of life.