Protein Trafficking in Neurons Book
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Protein Trafficking in Neurons


  • Author : Andrew J. Bean
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2006-10-27
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN 10 : 0080465897

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Protein Trafficking in Neurons Excerpt :

The efficient delivery of cellular constituents to their proper location is of fundamental importance for all cells and is of particular interest to neuroscientists, because of the unique functions and complex architecture of neurons. Protein Trafficking in Neurons examines mechanisms of protein trafficking and the role of trafficking in neuronal functioning from development to plasticity to disease. The book is divided into seven sections that review mechanisms of protein transport, the role of protein trafficking in synapse formation, exo- and endocytosis, transport of receptors, trafficking of ion channels and transporters, comparison of trafficking mechanisms in neuronal vs. non-neuronal cell types, and the relationship between trafficking and neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Prion Diseases. Provides a comprehensive examination of membrane/protein movement in neuronal function Sections on synapse development, synaptic transmission, and the role of trafficking in neurological disease Includes a focus on Molecular Mechanisms Illustrated with color summary pictures The only book examining protein trafficking and its functional implications, written by leaders in the field

Involvement of Myosin V and Associated Proteins in Protein Trafficking and Neuronal Morphogenesis Book

Involvement of Myosin V and Associated Proteins in Protein Trafficking and Neuronal Morphogenesis


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2009
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:680293108

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Involvement of Myosin V and Associated Proteins in Protein Trafficking and Neuronal Morphogenesis Excerpt :

Proper neuronal development and function requires precise sorting and delivery of various elements from the soma to the synapse. Important mediators of intracellular transport events are the actin-based class V myosin motors, which are involved in organelle transport in various cell types. Two myosin V family members, myosin Va and Vb, are present in the brain, however, the identity of cargoes transported by these motors is unknown. The objective of this thesis was to conduct molecular and cell biological studies to identify and characterize novel myosin V cargoes in neurons. The first approach I used was to characterize the distribution of candidate protein cargoes after blocking the function of endogenous myosin Va and Vb with dominant-negative (DN) versions. I found that in developing neurons, expression of DN myosin Vb, but not DN myosin Va, resulted in the accumulation in the soma of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit, GluR1, and a reduction of its surface expression. I also found that myosin Vb-mediated trafficking of GluR1 required an interaction with the GTPase Rab11. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the transport of a specific glutamate receptor subunit mediated by myosin Vb and Rab11. As an alternative approach to identify myosin Va binding partners in the brain, we conducted a yeast-two hybrid screen of a rat brain cDNA library using the cargo binding domain of myosin Va. Among the proteins identified in our screen, I selected a protein of unknown function previously identified as Rab-lysosomal-interacting protein like 2 (RILPL2) and further assessed its function. I found that RILPL2 expression in non-neuronal cells resulted in morphological changes and activation of the Rho GTPase Rac1. In developing neurons, gain or loss of RILPL2 function altered the density of dendritic spine protrusions and increased phosphorylation of the Rac1 effector Pak. These findings uncover a novel role for the myosin Va-interacting protein, RILPL2, in regulati

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton  Motor Proteins  and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon Book

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton Motor Proteins and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2016-01-12
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 534
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128033548

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The Neuronal Cytoskeleton Motor Proteins and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon Excerpt :

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton, Motor Proteins, and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon, a new volume in the Methods in Cell Biology series continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods in neuronal cells, and includes sections on such topics as actin transport in axons and neurofilament transport. Covers an increasingly appreciated field in cell biology Includes both established and new technologies Contributed by experts in the field

Molecular Biology of the Neuron Book

Molecular Biology of the Neuron


  • Author : R. W. Davies
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release Date : 2004-04-08
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 500
  • ISBN 10 : 9780191585838

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Molecular Biology of the Neuron Excerpt :

Nerve cells - neurons - are arguably the most complex of all cells. From the action of these cells comes movement, thought and consciousness. It is a challenging task to understand what molecules direct the various diverse aspects of their function. This has produced an ever-increasing amount of molecular information about neurons, and only in Molecular Biology of the Neuron can a large part of this information be found in one source. In this book, a non-specialist can learn about the molecules that control information flow in the brain or the progress of brain disease in an approachable format, while the expert has access to a wealth of detailed information from a wide range of topics impacting on his or her field of endeavour. The text is designed to achieve a balance of accessibility and broad coverage with up-to-date molecular detail. In the six years since the first edition of Molecular Biology of the Neuron there has been an explosion in the molecular information about neurons that has been discovered, and this information is incorporated into this second edition. Entirely new chapters have been introduced where recent advances have made a new aspect of neuronal function more comprehensible at the molecular level. Written by leading researchers in the field, the book provides an essential overview of the molecular structure and function of neurons, and will be an invaluable tool to students and researchers alike.

Local Biosynthetic Trafficking of Synaptic Proteins in Neuronal Dendrites Book

Local Biosynthetic Trafficking of Synaptic Proteins in Neuronal Dendrites


  • Author : Aaron Benjamin Bowen
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2017
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 193
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:1267639002

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Local Biosynthetic Trafficking of Synaptic Proteins in Neuronal Dendrites Excerpt :

Neurons face the challenge of regulating the abundance, distribution and repertoire of integral membrane proteins on the surface of their immense, architecturally complex dendritic arbors. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) supports local translation of secretory cargo in all dendrites, most dendrites lack the Golgi apparatus (GA), an essential organelle for conventional secretory trafficking. Thus, whether secretory cargo is locally trafficked in dendrites through a non-canonical pathway remains a fundamental question. We have defined the trafficking itinerary for key synaptic molecules in dendrites. Following ER exit, the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluA1 and neuroligin 1 undergo spatially restricted entry into the dendritic secretory pathway and accumulate in recycling endosomes (REs) located in dendrites and spines prior to reaching the plasma membrane. Surprisingly, surface delivery of GluA1 occurred even when GA function was disrupted. Thus, in addition to their canonical role in protein recycling, REs are critical mediators of forward secretory trafficking in neuronal dendrites and spines through a specialized GA-independent trafficking network. While the SNARE machinery that supports biosynthetic trafficking from the GA to the plasma membrane in neurons is not known, the SNAREs that mediate RE exocytosis have been partially defined. Surprisingly, we found that constitutive trafficking of GluA1 through REs does not depend on VAMP2, an R-SNARE with a well-defined role in RE exocytosis. Instead, the clostridial-neurotoxin insensitive SNARE VAMP7 defined a pool of GluA1-containing transport vesicles and was required for their delivery to the plasma membrane. Synaptic stimulation accelerated the delivery of GluA1 from this pool. Interestingly, while this activity-regulated delivery required VAMP2, inhibition of VAMP7 had no effect on activity-induced exocytosis. Thus, VAMP2 and VAMP7 play complementary roles in activity-induced and constitutive delivery of new

Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders Book

Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders


  • Author : Peter H. St.George-Hyslop
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2009-02-03
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 184
  • ISBN 10 : 9783540879411

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Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders Excerpt :

Many adult onset neurodegenerative diseases arise from the accumulation of misfolded peptides. This book examines the role sub-cellular trafficking pathways play in the pathological accumulation of these misfolded proteins and in attempts to clear them.

Protein Kinesis Book

Protein Kinesis


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : CSHL Press
  • Release Date : 1995
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 976
  • ISBN 10 : 0879690690

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Protein Kinesis Excerpt :

Investigators provide an account of how cells control and repair the folding of newly synthesized proteins and transport them correctly to membranes, mitochondria and other cellular addresses. It also provides information on synaptic function, cell movement and other cellular functions.

Neurotransmitter Release Book

Neurotransmitter Release


  • Author : Hugo J. Bellen
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release Date : 1999
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 466
  • ISBN 10 : UOM:39015048547338

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Neurotransmitter Release Excerpt :

Begins by providing a comprehensive introduction to the features and properties of synapses. It then describes key techniques used to study neurotransmitter release, from calcium entry to exocytosis. This is followed by chapters covering the identification and function of proteins involved in neurotransmitter release, the role of phospholipids in neurosecretion, and neurotransmitter transporter proteins. Subsequent chapters concentrate on approaches to unravel the function of specific proteins in vivo using toxins that affect neurotransmitter release, giant squit axons, C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice.

Membrane Trafficking and Endocytosis in Neurons Book

Membrane Trafficking and Endocytosis in Neurons


  • Author : Ayesha Murshid
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2008
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:1286075909

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Membrane Trafficking and Endocytosis in Neurons Excerpt :

"In mammalian cells, two main membrane trafficking pathways, the secretory and endocytic pathways are important for many biological functions. Secretory proteins are synthesized on ribosomes inside the cells, translocated into the ER for proper folding, later mature in the Golgi and continue their journey to the plasma membrane. Endocytosis is defined as a process of vesicle formation from the plasma membrane, where external solutes like nutrients, growth factors and transmembrane proteins are internalized by the cell to endosomal compartments. Internalized protein can either be degraded in lysosomes or recycled back to the plasma membrane. Clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME) is one of the most commonly used endocytic mechanisms in mammalian cells and its mechanism has been intensively studied over the years. Clathrin with the help of other adaptor/accessory proteins are able to form vesicles in the plasma membrane which are removed from the membrane by dynamin. There are many other kinds of internalization pathways which include phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, caveolae-dependent endocytosis, and caveolae and clathrin-independent endocytosis. In the first part of the thesis, we characterized a newly identified WVQF motif containing, AP2-binding protein, NECAP1 in neurons. We found that NECAP1 plays a vital role in the CME of transferrin and synaptotagmin in neuronal cells. In the second part, we studied endocytosis of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor (TrkA) in PC 12 cells. At a low dose (1 ng/ml) of NGF, we found that CME of TrkA is AP2- and NECAP1-independent in PC12 cells and that beta arrestin 1 can act as an alternate adaptor for its internalization. At higher extracellular concentration of NGF, uptake is clathrin- and dynamin- and beta-arrestin 1-independent, but requires actin, Cdc42 and sphingolipids, suggesting a different pathway. Our results show that large extracellular concentrations of NGF lead to strong signals of finite duration which is later termi

Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology Book

Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology


  • Author : Stefan Offermanns
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2008-08-14
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 1505
  • ISBN 10 : 9783540389163

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Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology Excerpt :

An essential text, this is a fully updated second edition of a classic, now in two volumes. It provides rapid access to information on molecular pharmacology for research scientists, clinicians and advanced students. With the A-Z format of over 2,000 entries, around 350 authors provide a complete reference to the area of molecular pharmacology. The book combines the knowledge of classic pharmacology with the more recent approach of the precise analysis of the molecular mechanisms by which drugs exert their effects. Short keyword entries define common acronyms, terms and phrases. In addition, detailed essays provide in-depth information on drugs, cellular processes, molecular targets, techniques, molecular mechanisms, and general principles.

Trafficking Inside Cells Book

Trafficking Inside Cells


  • Author : Nava Segev
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2011-04-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 445
  • ISBN 10 : 0387939989

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Trafficking Inside Cells Excerpt :

This book covers the past, present and future of the intra-cellular trafficking field, which has made a quantum leap in the last few decades. It details how the field has developed and evolved as well as examines future directions.

The Dynamic Synapse Book

The Dynamic Synapse


  • Author : Josef T. Kittler
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2006-03-27
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN 10 : 9780203486283

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The Dynamic Synapse Excerpt :

Exploring the diverse tools and technologies used to study synaptic processes, The Dynamic Synapse: Molecular Methods in Ionotropic Receptor Biology delineates techniques, methods, and conceptual advances for studying neurotransmitter receptors and other synaptic proteins. It describes a broad range of molecular, biochemical, imaging, and electrophysiological approaches for studying the biology of synapses. Specific topics include the use of proteomics to study synaptic protein complexes, the development of phosphorylation state specific antibodies, post-genomic tools applied to the study of synapses and RNA interference in neurons. In addition, several chapters focus on methods for gene and protein delivery into neuronal tissue. The use of biochemical, electrophysiological and optical tagging techniques to study the movement and membrane trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors in the membrane of live nerve cells are also discussed. To complement these approaches, the application of approaches for achieving long-term alterations in the genetic complement of neurons in vivo using viral vectors or homologous recombination of ES cells are also described.

Rab GTPases and Membrane Trafficking Book

Rab GTPases and Membrane Trafficking


  • Author : Laurence Porter
  • Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
  • Release Date : 2012-05-21
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 180
  • ISBN 10 : 9781608053650

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Rab GTPases and Membrane Trafficking Excerpt :

"Ypt/Rab GTPases form the largest branch of the Ras-related small GTPase superfamily and regulate intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes. Since their discovery over two decades ago, a wealth of information has accumulated about the roles that"