Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence Book

Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence


  • Author : Tshilidzi Marwala
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2021-03-31
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128209448

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Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence Excerpt :

Intelligent machines are populating our social, economic and political spaces. These intelligent machines are powered by Artificial Intelligence technologies such as deep learning. They are used in decision making. One element of decision making is the issue of rationality. Regulations such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) require that decisions that are made by these intelligent machines are explainable. Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence proposes that explainable decisions are good but the explanation must be rational to prevent these decisions from being challenged. Noted author Tshilidzi Marwala studies the concept of machine rationality and compares this to the rationality bounds prescribed by Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon and rationality bounds derived from the work of Nobel Laureates Richard Thaler and Daniel Kahneman. Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence describes why machine rationality is flexibly bounded due to advances in technology. This effectively means that optimally designed machines are more rational than human beings. Readers will also learn whether machine rationality can be quantified and identify how this can be achieved. Furthermore, the author discusses whether machine rationality is subjective. Finally, the author examines whether a population of intelligent machines collectively make more rational decisions than individual machines. Examples in biomedical engineering, social sciences and the financial sectors are used to illustrate these concepts. Provides an introduction to the key questions and challenges surrounding Rational Machines, including, When do we rely on decisions made by intelligent machines? What do decisions made by intelligent machines mean? Are these decisions rational or fair? Can we quantify these decisions? and Is rationality subjective? Introduces for the first time the concept of rational opportunity costs and the concept of flexibly bounded rationality as a rationality of intelligen

Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence Book

Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence


  • Author : Tshilidzi Marwala
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2021-03-31
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128209448

DOWNLOAD BOOK
Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence Excerpt :

Intelligent machines are populating our social, economic and political spaces. These intelligent machines are powered by Artificial Intelligence technologies such as deep learning. They are used in decision making. One element of decision making is the issue of rationality. Regulations such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) require that decisions that are made by these intelligent machines are explainable. Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence proposes that explainable decisions are good but the explanation must be rational to prevent these decisions from being challenged. Noted author Tshilidzi Marwala studies the concept of machine rationality and compares this to the rationality bounds prescribed by Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon and rationality bounds derived from the work of Nobel Laureates Richard Thaler and Daniel Kahneman. Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence describes why machine rationality is flexibly bounded due to advances in technology. This effectively means that optimally designed machines are more rational than human beings. Readers will also learn whether machine rationality can be quantified and identify how this can be achieved. Furthermore, the author discusses whether machine rationality is subjective. Finally, the author examines whether a population of intelligent machines collectively make more rational decisions than individual machines. Examples in biomedical engineering, social sciences and the financial sectors are used to illustrate these concepts. Provides an introduction to the key questions and challenges surrounding Rational Machines, including, When do we rely on decisions made by intelligent machines? What do decisions made by intelligent machines mean? Are these decisions rational or fair? Can we quantify these decisions? and Is rationality subjective? Introduces for the first time the concept of rational opportunity costs and the concept of flexibly bounded rationality as a rationality of intelligen

Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Rational Decision Making Book

Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Rational Decision Making


  • Author : Tshilidzi Marwala
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2014-10-20
  • Genre: Computers
  • Pages : 168
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319114248

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Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Rational Decision Making Excerpt :

Develops insights into solving complex problems in engineering, biomedical sciences, social science and economics based on artificial intelligence. Some of the problems studied are in interstate conflict, credit scoring, breast cancer diagnosis, condition monitoring, wine testing, image processing and optical character recognition. The author discusses and applies the concept of flexibly-bounded rationality which prescribes that the bounds in Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon’s bounded rationality theory are flexible due to advanced signal processing techniques, Moore’s Law and artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Rational Decision Making examines and defines the concepts of causal and correlation machines and applies the transmission theory of causality as a defining factor that distinguishes causality from correlation. It develops the theory of rational counterfactuals which are defined as counterfactuals that are intended to maximize the attainment of a particular goal within the context of a bounded rational decision making process. Furthermore, it studies four methods for dealing with irrelevant information in decision making: Theory of the marginalization of irrelevant information Principal component analysis Independent component analysis Automatic relevance determination method In addition it studies the concept of group decision making and various ways of effecting group decision making within the context of artificial intelligence. Rich in methods of artificial intelligence including rough sets, neural networks, support vector machines, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization, simulated annealing, incremental learning and fuzzy networks, this book will be welcomed by researchers and students working in these areas.

Causality  Correlation and Artificial Intelligence for Rational Decision Making Book

Causality Correlation and Artificial Intelligence for Rational Decision Making


  • Author : Tshilidzi Marwala
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2015-01-02
  • Genre: Computers
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN 10 : 9789814630887

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Causality Correlation and Artificial Intelligence for Rational Decision Making Excerpt :

Causality has been a subject of study for a long time. Often causality is confused with correlation. Human intuition has evolved such that it has learned to identify causality through correlation. In this book, four main themes are considered and these are causality, correlation, artificial intelligence and decision making. A correlation machine is defined and built using multi-layer perceptron network, principal component analysis, Gaussian Mixture models, genetic algorithms, expectation maximization technique, simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization. Furthermore, a causal machine is defined and built using multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function, Bayesian statistics and Hybrid Monte Carlo methods. Both these machines are used to build a Granger non-linear causality model. In addition, the Neyman–Rubin, Pearl and Granger causal models are studied and are unified. The automatic relevance determination is also applied to extend Granger causality framework to the non-linear domain. The concept of rational decision making is studied, and the theory of flexibly-bounded rationality is used to extend the theory of bounded rationality within the principle of the indivisibility of rationality. The theory of the marginalization of irrationality for decision making is also introduced to deal with satisficing within irrational conditions. The methods proposed are applied in biomedical engineering, condition monitoring and for modelling interstate conflict. Contents:Introduction to Artificial Intelligence based Decision MakingWhat is a Correlation Machine?What is a Causal Machine?Correlation Machines Using Optimization MethodsNeural Networks for Modeling Granger CausalityRubin, Pearl and Granger Causality Models: A Unified ViewCausal, Correlation and Automatic Relevance Determination Machines for Granger CausalityFlexibly-bounded RationalityMarginalization of Irrationality in Decision MakingConclusions and Further Work Readership: Graduate students, research

Handbook Of Machine Learning   Volume 2  Optimization And Decision Making Book

Handbook Of Machine Learning Volume 2 Optimization And Decision Making


  • Author : Marwala Tshilidzi
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2019-11-21
  • Genre: Computers
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN 10 : 9789811205682

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Handbook Of Machine Learning Volume 2 Optimization And Decision Making Excerpt :

Building on Handbook of Machine Learning - Volume 1: Foundation of Artificial Intelligence, this volume on Optimization and Decision Making covers a range of algorithms and their applications. Like the first volume, it provides a starting point for machine learning enthusiasts as a comprehensive guide on classical optimization methods. It also provides an in-depth overview on how artificial intelligence can be used to define, disprove or validate economic modeling and decision making concepts.

On Rationality  Artificial Intelligence And Economics Book

On Rationality Artificial Intelligence And Economics


  • Author : Daniel Muller
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2022-03-09
  • Genre: Computers
  • Pages : 252
  • ISBN 10 : 9789811255137

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On Rationality Artificial Intelligence And Economics Excerpt :

The world we live in presents plenty of tricky, impactful, and hard-tomake decisions to be taken. Sometimes the available options are ample, at other times they are apparently binary, either way, they often confront us with dilemmas, paradoxes, and even denial of values.In the dawn of the age of intelligence, when robots are gradually taking over most decision-making from humans, this book sheds a bit of light on decision rationale. It delves into the limits of these decision processes (for both humans and machines), and it does so by providing a new perspective that is somehow opposed to orthodox economics. All Economics reflections in this book are underlined and linked to Artificial Intelligence.The authors hope that this comprehensive and modern analysis, firmly grounded in the opinions of various groundbreaking Nobel laureate economists, may be helpful to a broad audience interested in how decisions may lead us all to flourishing societies. That is, societies in which economic blunders (caused by over simplification of problems and super estimation of tools) are reduced substantially.

Artificial Intelligence and its Impact on Business Book

Artificial Intelligence and its Impact on Business


  • Author : Wolfgang Amann
  • Publisher : IAP
  • Release Date : 2020-06-01
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 213
  • ISBN 10 : 9781648020759

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Artificial Intelligence and its Impact on Business Excerpt :

Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are one of top investment priorities in these days. They are aimed at finding applications in fields of special value for humans, including education. The fourth industrial revolution will replace not only human hands but also human brains, the time of machines requires new forms of work and new ways of business education, however we must be aware that if there is no control of human-chatbot interaction, there is a risk of losing sight of this interaction’s goal. First, it is important to get people to truly understand AI systems, to intentionally participate in their use, as well as to build their trust, because “the measure of success for AI applications is the value they create for human lives” (Stanford University 2016, 33). Consequently, society needs to adapt to AI applications if it is to extend its benefits and mitigate the inevitable errors and failures. This is why it is highly recommended to create new AI-powered tools for education that are the result of cooperation between AI researchers and humanities’ and social sciences’ researchers, who can identify cognitive processes and human behaviors. This book is authored by a range of international experts with a diversity of backgrounds and perspectives hopefully bringing us closer to the responses for the questions what we should teach (what the ‘right’ set of future skills is), how we should teach (the way in which schools should teach and assess them) and where we should teach (what implications does AI have for today’s education infrastructure). We must remember as we have already noticed before “…education institutions would need to ensure that that they have an appropriate infrastructure, as well as the safety and credibility of AI-based systems. Ultimately, the law and policies need to adjust to the rapid pace of AI development, because the formal responsibility for appropriate learning outcomes will in future be divided between a teacher a

Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theory  Skynet in the Market Book

Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theory Skynet in the Market


  • Author : Tshilidzi Marwala
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-09-18
  • Genre: Computers
  • Pages : 204
  • ISBN 10 : 9783319661049

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Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theory Skynet in the Market Excerpt :

This book theoretically and practically updates major economic ideas such as demand and supply, rational choice and expectations, bounded rationality, behavioral economics, information asymmetry, pricing, efficient market hypothesis, game theory, mechanism design, portfolio theory, causality and financial engineering in the age of significant advances in man-machine systems. The advent of artificial intelligence has changed many disciplines such as engineering, social science and economics. Artificial intelligence is a computational technique which is inspired by natural intelligence concepts such as the swarming of birds, the working of the brain and the pathfinding of the ants. Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theory: Skynet in the Market analyses the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theories, a subject that has not been studied. It also introduces new economic theories and these are rational counterfactuals and rational opportunity costs. These ideas are applied to diverse areas such as modelling of the stock market, credit scoring, HIV and interstate conflict. Artificial intelligence ideas used in this book include neural networks, particle swarm optimization, simulated annealing, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. It, furthermore, explores ideas in causality including Granger as well as the Pearl causality models.

On Rationality  Artificial Intelligence and Economics Book

On Rationality Artificial Intelligence and Economics


  • Author : Daniel Muller
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2022
  • Genre: Artificial intelligence
  • Pages : 253
  • ISBN 10 : 9811255121

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On Rationality Artificial Intelligence and Economics Excerpt :

"The world we live in presents plenty of tricky, impactful, and hard-to make decisions to be taken. Sometimes the available options are ample, at other times they are apparently binary, either way, they often confront us with dilemmas, paradoxes, and even denial of values. In the dawn of the age of intelligence, when robots are gradually taking over most decision making from humans, this book sheds a bit of light on decision rationale. It delves into the limits of these decision processes (for both humans and machines), and it does so by providing a new perspective that is somehow opposed to orthodox economics. All Economics reflections in this book are underlined and linked to Artificial Intelligence. The authors hope that this comprehensive and modern analysis, firmly grounded in the opinions of various ground-breaking Nobel laureate economists, may be helpful to a broad audience interested in how decisions may lead us all to flourishing societies. That is, societies in which economic blunders (caused by over simplification of problems and super estimation of tools) are reduced substantially"--

Machine Learning  Concepts  Tools And Data Visualization Book

Machine Learning Concepts Tools And Data Visualization


  • Author : Minsoo Kang
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2021-03-16
  • Genre: Computers
  • Pages : 296
  • ISBN 10 : 9789811228162

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Machine Learning Concepts Tools And Data Visualization Excerpt :

This set of lecture notes, written for those who are unfamiliar with mathematics and programming, introduces the reader to important concepts in the field of machine learning. It consists of three parts. The first is an overview of the history of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data science, and also includes case studies of well-known AI systems. The second is a step-by-step introduction to Azure Machine Learning, with examples provided. The third is an explanation of the techniques and methods used in data visualization with R, which can be used to communicate the results collected by the AI systems when they are analyzed statistically. Practice questions are provided throughout the book.

KI 2008  Advances in Artificial Intelligence Book

KI 2008 Advances in Artificial Intelligence


  • Author : Andreas Dengel
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2008-09-24
  • Genre: Computers
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN 10 : 9783540858454

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KI 2008 Advances in Artificial Intelligence Excerpt :

KI 2008 was the 31st Annual German Conference on Arti?cial Intelligence held September 23–26 at the University of Kaiserslautern and the German Research Center for Arti?cial Intelligence DFKI GmbH in Kaiserslautern, Germany. The conference series started in 1975 with the German Workshop on AI (GWAI), which took place in Bonn, and represents the ?rst forum of its type for the German AI Community. Over the years AI has become a major ?eld in c- puter scienceinGermanyinvolvinga numberof successfulprojects thatreceived much international attention. Today KI conferences are international forums where participants from academia and industry from all over the world meet to exchange their recent research results and to discuss trends in the ?eld. Since 1993 the meeting has been called the “Annual German Conference on Arti?cial Intelligence,” designated by the German acronym KI. This volume contains the papers selected out of 77 submissions, including a number of submissions from outside German-speaking countries. In total, 15 submissions (19%) were accepted for oral and 30 (39%) for poster presentation. Oralpresentationsattheconferenceweresingletrack. Becauseofthis,thechoice of presentation form (oral, poster) was based on how well reviews indicated that the paper would ?t into one or the other format. The proceedings allocate the same space to both types of papers. In addition, we selected six papers that show high application potential - scribing systems or prototypical implementations of innovative AI technologies. They are also included in this volume as two-page extended abstracts.

Apocalyptic AI  Visions of Heaven in Robotics  Artificial Intelligence  and Virtual Reality Book

Apocalyptic AI Visions of Heaven in Robotics Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality


  • Author : Robert M. Geraci
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release Date : 2010-02-05
  • Genre: Religion
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN 10 : 9780199978939

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Apocalyptic AI Visions of Heaven in Robotics Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality Excerpt :

Apocalyptic AI, the hope that we might one day upload our minds into machines or cyberspace and live forever, is a surprisingly wide-spread and influential idea, affecting everything from the world view of online gamers to government research funding and philosophical thought. In Apocalyptic AI, Robert Geraci offers the first serious account of this "cyber-theology" and the people who promote it. Drawing on interviews with roboticists and AI researchers and with devotees of the online game Second Life, among others, Geraci illuminates the ideas of such advocates of Apocalyptic AI as Hans Moravec and Ray Kurzweil. He reveals that the rhetoric of Apocalyptic AI is strikingly similar to that of the apocalyptic traditions of Judaism and Christianity. In both systems, the believer is trapped in a dualistic universe and expects a resolution in which he or she will be translated to a transcendent new world and live forever in a glorified new body. Equally important, Geraci shows how this worldview shapes our culture. Apocalyptic AI has become a powerful force in modern culture. In this superb volume, he shines a light on this belief system, revealing what it is and how it is changing society.

Artificial Intelligence Book

Artificial Intelligence


  • Author : Blay Whitby
  • Publisher : The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
  • Release Date : 2009-01-15
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 161
  • ISBN 10 : 9781435851658

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Artificial Intelligence Excerpt :

Introduces artificial intelligence, what it can do, myths about it, and ways it may expand in the future.

Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence Book

Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence


  • Author : Vincent C. Müller
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-08-23
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 418
  • ISBN 10 : 9783642316746

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Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence Excerpt :

Can we make machines that think and act like humans or other natural intelligent agents? The answer to this question depends on how we see ourselves and how we see the machines in question. Classical AI and cognitive science had claimed that cognition is computation, and can thus be reproduced on other computing machines, possibly surpassing the abilities of human intelligence. This consensus has now come under threat and the agenda for the philosophy and theory of AI must be set anew, re-defining the relation between AI and Cognitive Science. We can re-claim the original vision of general AI from the technical AI disciplines; we can reject classical cognitive science and replace it with a new theory (e.g. embodied); or we can try to find new ways to approach AI, for example from neuroscience or from systems theory. To do this, we must go back to the basic questions on computing, cognition and ethics for AI. The 30 papers in this volume provide cutting-edge work from leading researchers that define where we stand and where we should go from here.