The Changing Alpine Treeline Book

The Changing Alpine Treeline


  • Author : David R. Butler
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2009-03-13
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN 10 : 0080957099

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The Changing Alpine Treeline Excerpt :

The alpine treeline ecotone (ATE) is an area of transition high on mountains where closed canopy forests from lower elevations give way to the open alpine tundra and rocky expanses above. Alpine tundra is an island biome and its ecotone with forest is subject to change, and like oceanic islands, alpine tundra is subject to invasion – or the upward advance of treeline. The invasion of tundra by trees will have consequences for the tundra biome as invasion does for other island flora and fauna. To examine the invasibility of tundra we take a plant’s-eye-view, wherein the local conditions become extremely important. Among these local conditions, we find geomorphology to be exceptionally important. We concentrate on aspects of microtopography (and microgeomorphology) and microclimate because these are the factors that matter: from the plant’s-eye-view, but we pay attention to multiple scales. At coarse scales, snow avalanches and debris flows are widespread and create “disturbance treelines whose elevation is well below those controlled by climate. At medium scales, turf-banked terraces create tread-and-riser topography that is a difficult landscape for a tree seedling to survive upon because of exposure to wind, dryness, and impenetrable surfaces. At fine scales, turf exfoliation of the fronts of turf-banked risers, and boulders, offer microsites where tree seedlings may find shelter and are able to gain a foothold in the alpine tundra; conversely, however, surfaces of needle-ice pans and frost heaving associated with miniature patterned ground production are associated with sites inimical to seedling establishment or survival. We explicitly consider how local scale processes propagate across scales into landscape patterns. The objective of this book is to examine the controls on change at alpine treeline. All the papers are focused on work done in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Although any one place is limiting, we are able to examine the alpine treelin

Alpine Treelines Book

Alpine Treelines


  • Author : Christian Körner
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-05-26
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN 10 : 9783034803960

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Alpine Treelines Excerpt :

Alpine treelines mark the low-temperature limit of tree growth and occur in mountains world-wide. Presenting a companion to his book Alpine Plant Life, Christian Körner provides a global synthesis of the treeline phenomenon from sub-arctic to equatorial latitudes and a functional explanation based on the biology of trees. The comprehensive text approaches the subject in a multi-disciplinary way by exploring forest patterns at the edge of tree life, tree morphology, anatomy, climatology and, based on this, modelling treeline position, describing reproduction and population processes, development, phenology, evolutionary aspects, as well as summarizing evidence on the physiology of carbon, water and nutrient relations, and stress physiology. It closes with an account on treelines in the past (palaeo-ecology) and a section on global change effects on treelines, now and in the future. With more than 100 illustrations, many of them in colour, the book shows alpine treelines from around the globe and offers a wealth of scientific information in the form of diagrams and tables.

The Changing Alpine Treeline Book

The Changing Alpine Treeline


  • Author : David R. Butler
  • Publisher : Elsevier Science
  • Release Date : 2009
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 199
  • ISBN 10 : 0444533648

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The Changing Alpine Treeline Excerpt :

The alpine treeline ecotone (ATE) is an area of transition high on mountains where closed canopy forests from lower elevations give way to the open alpine tundra and rocky expanses above. Alpine tundra is an island biome and its ecotone with forest is subject to change, and like oceanic islands, alpine tundra is subject to invasion or the upward advance of treeline. The invasion of tundra by trees will have consequences for the tundra biome as invasion does for other island flora and fauna. To examine the invasibility of tundra we take a plant's-eye-view, wherein the local conditions become extremely important. Among these local conditions, we find geomorphology to be exceptionally important. We concentrate on aspects of microtopography (and microgeomorphology) and microclimate because these are the factors that matter: from the plant's-eye-view, but we pay attention to multiple scales. The objective of this book is to examine the controls on change at alpine treeline. All the papers are focused on work done in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Although any one place is limiting, we are able to examine the alpine treeline here in some detail - and an advantage is that the treeline ecotone in Glacier National Park is quite variable in itself due to the underlying variability in geomorphology at multiple scales.

Alpine and Polar Treelines in a Changing Environment Book

Alpine and Polar Treelines in a Changing Environment


  • Author : Gerhard Wieser
  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release Date : 2020-04-09
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 268
  • ISBN 10 : 9783039286300

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Alpine and Polar Treelines in a Changing Environment Excerpt :

Concerns have been raised with respect to the state of high-altitude and high-latitude treelines, as they are anticipated to undergo considerable modifications due to global changes, and especially due to climate warming. As high-elevation treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, they are considered to be sensitive to climate warming. As a consequence, in this future, warmer environment, an upward migration of treelines is expected because low air and root-zone temperatures constrain their regeneration and growth. Despite the ubiquity of climate warming, treeline advancement is not a worldwide phenomenon: some treelines have been advancing rapidly, others have responded sluggishly or have remained stable. This variation in responses is attributed to the potential interaction of a continuum of site-related factors that may lead to the occurrence of locally conditioned temperature patterns. Competition amongst species and below-ground resources have been suggested as additional factors explaining the variability in the movement of treelines. This Special Issue (book) is dedicated to the discussion of treeline responses to changing environmental conditions in different areas around the globe.

Global Change and Mountain Regions Book

Global Change and Mountain Regions


  • Author : Uli M. Huber
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2006-03-09
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 652
  • ISBN 10 : 9781402035081

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Global Change and Mountain Regions Excerpt :

This book gives an overview of the state of research in fields pertaining to the detection, understanding and prediction of global change impacts in mountain regions. More than sixty contributions from paleoclimatology, cryospheric research, hydrology, ecology, and development studies are compiled in this volume, each with an outlook on future research directions. The book will interest meteorologists, geologists, botanists and climatologists.

Signs of Climate Change in Nordic Nature Book

Signs of Climate Change in Nordic Nature


  • Author : Nordisk Ministerråd
  • Publisher : Nordic Council of Ministers
  • Release Date : 2009
  • Genre: Nature
  • Pages : 52
  • ISBN 10 : 9789289318891

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Signs of Climate Change in Nordic Nature Excerpt :

In the project we show that climate change is not only affecting a few individual species or habitats in the Nordic region, but that number of changes occur concurrently and at many scales.

Trees in a Changing Environment Book

Trees in a Changing Environment


  • Author : Michael Tausz
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2014-08-26
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 287
  • ISBN 10 : 9789401791007

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Trees in a Changing Environment Excerpt :

This book delivers current state-of-the-science knowledge of tree ecophysiology, with particular emphasis on adaptation to a novel future physical and chemical environment. Unlike the focus of most books on the topic, this considers air chemistry changes (O3, NOx, and N deposition) in addition to elevated CO2 effects and its secondary effects of elevated temperature. The authors have addressed two systems essential for plant life: water handling capacity from the perspective of water transport; the coupling of xylem and phloem water potential and flow; water and nutrition uptake via likely changes in mycorrhizal relationships; control of water loss via stomata and its retention via cellular regulation; and within plant carbon dynamics from the perspective of environmental limitations to growth, allocation to defences, and changes in partitioning to respiration. The authors offer expert knowledge and insight to develop likely outcomes within the context of many unknowns. We offer this comprehensive analysis of tree responses and their capacity to respond to environmental changes to provide a better insight in understanding likelihood for survival, as well as planning for the future with long-lived, stationary organisms adapted to the past: trees.

Mountain Landscapes in Transition Book

Mountain Landscapes in Transition


  • Author : Udo Schickhoff
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2021-11-02
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 656
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030702380

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Mountain Landscapes in Transition Excerpt :

This book compiles available knowledge of the response of mountain ecosystems to recent climate and land use change and intends to bridge the gap between science, policy and the community concerned. The chapters present key concepts, major drivers and key processes of mountain response, providing transdisciplinary orientation to mountain studies incorporating experiences of academics, community leaders and policy-makers from developed and less developed countries. The book chapters are arranged in two sections. The first section concerns the response processes of mountain environments to climate change. This section addresses climate change itself (past, current and future changes of temperature and precipitation) and its impacts on the cryosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and human-environment systems. The second section focuses on the response processes of mountain environments to land use/land cover change. The case studies address effects of changing agriculture and pastoralism, forest/water resources management and urbanization processes, landscape management, and biodiversity conservation. The book is designed as an interdisciplinary publication which critically evaluates developments in mountains of the world with contributions from both social and natural sciences.

Responses to Climate Change in the Cold Biomes Book

Responses to Climate Change in the Cold Biomes


  • Author : Hans J. De Boeck
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2019-06-05
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 165
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889458776

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Responses to Climate Change in the Cold Biomes Excerpt :

Climate change is thought to be especially relevant to ecosystems in the cold biomes. Observed warming has been higher in cold climates through various positive feedbacks, especially declining snow and ice cover, and climate projections indicate further rapid warming in the decades to come. Temperature change can have profound impacts in cold biome ecosystems, either directly in terms of impacts on physiology or growing season length, or indirectly via changes in nutrient cycling. The regions focused on here are the (sub)arctic and the (sub)alpine areas, both characterized by short growing seasons and low annual temperatures, but with different radiation environments depending on latitude. Climate change can have impacts in all seasons. Increased spring temperatures can accelerate snowmelt, leading to an earlier onset of the growing season, while warmer summers may stimulate primary productivity through temperatures closer to metabolic optima and/or increased mineralization rates. Winter warming can lead to the vegetation being damaged because of exposure to harsh frost without insulating snow cover. In all of this, concurrent changes in precipitation also play an important role: increased snowfall can buffer warming-induced advances in snowmelt, a higher ratio of rain to snow can greatly accelerate snowmelt in winter and spring, and summer drought may reverse growth-stimulation by warming directly (drought stress) or indirectly (e.g. impaired nutrient uptake). Micro-climate is crucial in these systems and requires particular attention as it can vary widely across the landscape, creating different growing environments in the space of a few meters or even less. Interest in cold region responses to climate change does not only arise from the fact that they harbor unique ecosystems that may be endangered, but also because they store large amounts of carbon that may be released under climate change. However, research is challenging because of the remoteness of many of t

Environmental Change in Siberia Book

Environmental Change in Siberia


  • Author : Heiko Balzter
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2010-07-20
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN 10 : 9048186412

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Environmental Change in Siberia Excerpt :

The Siberian environment is a unique region of the world that is both very strongly affected by global climate change and at the same time particularly vulnerable to its consequences. The news about the melting of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean and the prospect of an ice-free shipping passage from Scandinavia to Alaska along the Russian north coast has sparked an international debate about natural resource exploitation, national boundaries and the impacts of the rapid changes on people, animals and plants. Over the last decades Siberia has also witnessed severe forest fires to an extent that is hard to imagine in other parts of the world where the po- lation density is higher, the fire-prone ecosystems cover much smaller areas and the systems of fire control are better resourced. The acceleration of the fire regime poses the question of the future of the boreal forest in the taiga region. Vegetation models have already predicted a shift of vegetation zones to the north under s- narios of global climate change. The implications of a large-scale expansion of the grassland steppe ecosystems in the south of Siberia and a retreat of the taiga forest into the tundra systems that expand towards the Arctic Ocean would be very signi- cant for the local population and the economy. I have studied Russian forests from remote sensing and modelling for about 11 years now and still find it a fascinating subject to investigate.

Alpine Biodiversity in Europe Book

Alpine Biodiversity in Europe


  • Author : Laszlo Nagy
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 479
  • ISBN 10 : 9783642189678

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Alpine Biodiversity in Europe Excerpt :

The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, spawned a multitude of pro grammes aimed at assessing, managing and conserving the earth's biological diversity. One important issue addressed at the conference was the mountain environment. A specific feature of high mountains is the so-called alpine zone, i. e. the treeless regions at the uppermost reaches. Though covering only a very small proportion of the land surface, the alpine zone contains a rela tively large number of plants, animals, fungi and microbes which are specifi cally adapted to cold environments. This zone contributes fundamentally to the planet's biodiversity and provides many resources for mountain dwelling as well as lowland people. However, rapid and largely man-made changes are affecting mountain ecosystems, such as soil erosion, losses of habitat and genetic diversity, and climate change, all of which have to be addressed. As stated in the European Community Biodiversity Strategy, "the global scale of biodiversity reduction or losses and the interdependence of different species and ecosystems across national borders demands concerted international action". Managing biodiversity in a rational and sustainable way needs basic knowledge on its qualitative and quantitative aspects at local, regional and global scales. This is particularly true for mountains, which are distributed throughout the world and are indeed hot spots of biodiversity in absolute terms as well as relative to the surrounding lowlands.

Alpine Plant Life Book

Alpine Plant Life


  • Author : Christian Körner
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2021-05-02
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 500
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030595388

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Alpine Plant Life Excerpt :

This book is a completely revised, substantially extended treatment of the physical and biological factors that drive life in high mountains. The book covers the characteristics of alpine plant life, alpine climate and soils, life under snow, stress tolerance, treeline ecology, plant water, carbon, and nutrient relations, plant growth and productivity, developmental processes, and two largely novel chapters on alpine plant reproduction and global change biology. The book explains why the topography driven exposure of plants to dramatic micro-climatic gradients over very short distances causes alpine biodiversity to be particularly robust against climatic change. Geographically, this book draws on examples from all parts of the world, including the tropics. This book is complemented with novel evidence and insight that emerged over the last 17 years of alpine plant research. The number of figures – mostly in color – nearly doubled, with many photographs providing a vivid impression of alpine plant life worldwide. Christian Körner was born in 1949 in Austria, received his academic education at the University of Innsbruck, and was full professor of Botany at the University of Basel from 1989 to 2014. As emeritus Professor he is continuing alpine plant research in the Swiss Alps.

The SAGE Handbook of Biogeography Book

The SAGE Handbook of Biogeography


  • Author : Andrew Millington
  • Publisher : SAGE
  • Release Date : 2011-09-22
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 624
  • ISBN 10 : 9781473971653

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The SAGE Handbook of Biogeography Excerpt :

"A superb resource for understanding the diversity of the modern discipline of biogeography, and its history and future, especially within geography departments. I expect to refer to it often." - Professor Sally Horn, University of Tennessee "As you browse through this fine book you will be struck by the diverse topics that biogeographers investigate and the many research methods they use.... Biogeography is interdisciplinary, and a commonly-voiced concern is that one biogeographer may not readily understand another's research findings. A handbook like this is important for synthesising, situating, explaining and evaluating a large literature, and pointing the reader to informative publications." - Geographical Research "A valuable contribution in both a research and teaching context. If you are biologically trained, it provides an extensive look into the geographical tradition of biogeography, covering some topics that may be less familiar to those with an evolution/ecology background. Alternatively, if you are a geography student, researcher, or lecturer, it will provide a useful reference and will be invaluable to the non-biogeographer who suddenly has the teaching of an introductory biogeography course thrust upon them." - Adam C. Algar, Frontiers of Biogeography The SAGE Handbook of Biogeography is a manual for scoping the past, present and future of biogeography that enable readers to consider, where relevant, how similar biogeographical issues are tackled by researchers in different 'schools'. In line with the concept of all SAGE Handbooks, this is a retrospective and prospective overview of biogeography that will: Consider the main areas of biogeography researched by geographers Detail a global perspective by incorporating the work of different schools of biogeographers Ecplore the divergent evolution of biogeography as a discipline and consider how this diversity can be harnessed Examine the interdisciplinary debates that biogeographers are contributing to