The Evolution of the Immune System Book

The Evolution of the Immune System


  • Author : Davide Malagoli
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2016-07-21
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128020135

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The Evolution of the Immune System Excerpt :

The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification is the first book of its kind that prompts a new perspective when describing and considering the evolution of the immune system. Its unique approach summarizes, updates, and provides new insights on the different immune receptors, soluble factors, and immune cell effectors. Helps the reader gain a modern idea of the evolution of the immune systems in pluricellular organisms Provides a complete overview of the most studied and hot topics in comparative and evolutionary immunology Reflects the organisation of the immune system (cell-based, humoral [innate], humoral [adaptive]) without introducing further and misleading levels of organization Brings concepts and ideas on the evolution of the immune system to a wide readership

Evolutionary Concepts in Immunology Book

Evolutionary Concepts in Immunology


  • Author : Robert Jack
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2019-06-13
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 145
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030186678

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Evolutionary Concepts in Immunology Excerpt :

Immunology is a nodal subject that links many areas of biology. It permeates the biosciences, and also plays crucial roles in diagnosis and therapy in areas of clinical medicine ranging from the control of infectious and autoimmune diseases to tumour therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and small molecule modulators of immunity are major factors in the pharmaceutical industry and now constitute a multi billion dollar business. Students in these diverse areas are frequently daunted by the complexity of immunology and the astonishing array of unusual mechanisms that go to make it up. Starting from Dobzhansky’s famous slogan, “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”, this book will serve to illuminate how evolutionary forces shaped immunity and thus provide an explanation for how many of its counter intuitive oddities arose. By doing so it will provide a conceptual framework on which students may organise the rapidly growing flood of immunological knowledge.

The Past and the Future of Human Immunity Under Viral Evolutionary Pressure Book

The Past and the Future of Human Immunity Under Viral Evolutionary Pressure


  • Author : Gkikas Magiorkinis
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2019-12-04
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889632299

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The Past and the Future of Human Immunity Under Viral Evolutionary Pressure Excerpt :

There is a long-standing evolutionary battle between viruses and their hosts that continues to be waged. The evidence of this conflict can be found on both sides, with the human immune system being responsive to new viral challenges and viruses having developed often sophisticated countermeasures. The “arms race” between viruses and hosts can be thought as an example of the “Red Queen” race, an evolutionary hypothesis inspired from the dialogue of Alice with the Red Queen in Lewis Carroll’s “Through the Looking-Glass”. At the same time, viruses have a minimal genomic content as they have evolved to hitchhike biological machinery of their hosts (or other co-infecting viruses). The minimalistic viral genome could be thought as the result of a “Black Queen” evolution, a theory inspired from the card game Heart, where the winner is the one with the fewest points at the end. The effects of this arms race are evident in the evolution of the human immune system. This system is capable of responding to diverse viral challenges, utilizing both the ancient innate immune system and the more recently evolved adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates. It is now well-known that the two systems are linked, with innate immunity hypothesized to have provided raw material for the emergence of the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune response comprises several protein families (including B and T cell receptors, MHC and KIR proteins, for example) that are encoded by complex and variable genomic regions. This complexity enables for responsive genetic changes to occur in immune cells, such as the ability of genomic hypervariable regions in B cells to recombine in order to produce more specific antibodies. Indeed, the human immune system is thought to be continually evolving via various mechanisms such as changes in the genes encoding immune receptors and the regulatory sequences that control their expression. For example, there is some evidence that exogenous

Amphioxus Immunity Book

Amphioxus Immunity


  • Author : An-Long Xu
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2015-12-31
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128096475

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Amphioxus Immunity Excerpt :

Amphioxus Immunity: Tracing the Origin of Human Immunity covers a remarkable range of information about Amphioxus and its evolutionary context. This compilation of what is currently known about Amphioxus, with a sharp focus on its immune system, includes 13 topics, such as: Amphioxus as a model for understanding the evolution of vertebrates basic knowledge of immunology immune organs and cells of amphioxus a genomic and transcriptomic view of the Amphioxus immunity pattern recognition system in Amphioxus transcription factors in Amphioxus the complement system of Amphioxus the oxidative burst system in Amphioxus immune effectors in Amphioxus lipid signaling of immune response in Amphioxus apoptosis in amphioxus; primitive adaptive immune system of Amphioxus and future research directions This valuable reference book is loaded with information that will be useful for anyone who wishes to learn more about the origin of vertebrates and adaptive immunity. Provides new evidence on the origin of the adaptive immune system, the evolution of innate immunity, and evolution-stage specific immune defense mechanisms Not only presents the cells and molecules involved in the adaptive immune response in Amphioxus, but also characterizes the origination and evolution of the gene families and pathways involved in innate immunity Includes much pioneering work, from the molecular, genomic, and cellular to the individual level

Janeway s Immunobiology Book

Janeway s Immunobiology


  • Author : Kenneth M. Murphy
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2008
  • Genre: Immunology
  • Pages : 887
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:1035926079

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Janeway s Immunobiology Excerpt :

Molecular Biology of the Cell Book
Score: 4.5
From 5 Ratings

Molecular Biology of the Cell


  • Author : Bruce Alberts
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2004
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 0815332181

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Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Immune System Book

Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Immune System


  • Author : L. Du Pasquier
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2011-10-04
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 326
  • ISBN 10 : 3642640788

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Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Immune System Excerpt :

The comparative approach to immunology can be traced to the era of Pasteur and Metchnikov in which observations regarding foreign recognition in invertebrates was a factor in the develop ment of the principal concepts that created the foundation of what now is the broad field of immunology. With each major experimental and conceptual breakthrough, the classical, albeit essential, question has been asked "are the immune systems of phylogenetically primitive vertebrates and invertebrates similar to that of mammals?" Somewhat surprisingly for the jawed verte brates, the general answer has been a qualified form of "yes", whereas for agnathans and invertebrate phyla it has been "no" so far. The apparent abruptness in the appearance of the immune system of vertebrates is linked to the introduction of the somatic generation of the diversity of its antigen specific receptors. Therefore the questions regarding the origin and evolution of the specific immune system revolve around this phenomenon. With respect to the origin of the system (aside from the or igin of the rearranging machinery itself, the study of which is still in its infancy) one can ask questions about the cellular and mo lecular contexts in which the mechanism was introduced.

Immunity Book

Immunity


  • Author : Alfred I. Tauber
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2017-01-02
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN 10 : 9780190651268

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Immunity Excerpt :

Modern immunology traditionally conceives of the immune system as providing defense against pathogens. Alfred I. Tauber criticizes this conception of immunity as too narrow, because it discounts much of the immune system's other normal functions. These include active tolerance of nutritional exchanges with the environment and the stabilization of cooperative relationships with resident micro-organisms. An expanded account extends immunity's functional role from singular 'defense' to broadened discernment of environmental 'exchange.' This ecological perspective has profound theoretical implications, for the basic notion of immune identity is reconfigured: highlighting the organism as a holobiont (a consortium of diverse organisms living in cooperative relationships) challenges prevailing concepts of individuality and the self/nonself dichotomy heretofore organizing immune theory. Indeed, if theoretical interest is focused on the challenges of maintaining immune balance in the full ecological context of the organism, then immune regulation assumes new complexity. Tauber maintains that the key to unravelling that puzzle requires a critical re-assessment of the cognitive processes that underlie immune effector functions. Accordingly, he provides the outline of a re-formulated 'cognitive paradigm' that dispenses with agent-based models and adopts an ecologically conceived understanding of perception and information processing. The implications of this revised configuration of immunity and its deconstructed notions of individuality and selfhood have wide significance for philosophers and life scientists working in immunology, ecology, and the cognitive sciences.

Avian Immunology Book

Avian Immunology


  • Author : Karel A. Schat
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2012-12-02
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 456
  • ISBN 10 : 9780123972729

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Avian Immunology Excerpt :

The second edition of Avian Immunology provides an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge of avian immunology. From the ontogeny of the avian immune system to practical application in vaccinology, the book encompasses all aspects of innate and adaptive immunity in chickens. In addition, chapters are devoted to the immunology of other commercially important species such as turkeys and ducks, and to ecoimmunology summarizing the knowledge of immune responses in free-living birds often in relation to reproductive success. The book contains a detailed description of the avian innate immune system, encompassing the mucosal, enteric, respiratory and reproductive systems. The diseases and disorders it covers include immunodepressive diseases and immune evasion, autoimmune diseases, and tumors of the immune system. Practical aspects of vaccination are examined as well. Extensive appendices summarize resources for scientists including cell lines, inbred chicken lines, cytokines, chemokines, and monoclonal antibodies. The world-wide importance of poultry protein for the human diet, as well as the threat of avian influenza pandemics like H5N1 and heavy reliance on vaccination to protect commercial flocks makes this book a vital resource. This book provides crucial information not only for poultry health professionals and avian biologists, but also for comparative and veterinary immunologists, graduate students and veterinary students with an interest in avian immunology. With contributions from 33 of the foremost international experts in the field, this book provides the most up-to-date review of avian immunology so far Contains a detailed description of the avian innate immune system reviewing constitutive barriers, chemical and cellular responses; it includes a comprehensive review of avian Toll-like receptors Contains a wide-ranging review of the "ecoimmunology" of free-living avian species, as applied to studies of population dynamics, and reviews methods and resourc

Rapidly Evolving Genes and Genetic Systems Book

Rapidly Evolving Genes and Genetic Systems


  • Author : Rama S. Singh
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2012-06-28
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN 10 : 9780199642274

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Rapidly Evolving Genes and Genetic Systems Excerpt :

A range of theories on the rates of evolution-from static to gradual to punctuated to quantum-have been developed, mostly by comparing morphological changes over geological timescales as described in the fossil record.

A Historical Perspective on Evidence Based Immunology Book

A Historical Perspective on Evidence Based Immunology


  • Author : Edward J. Moticka
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release Date : 2015-11-25
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 394
  • ISBN 10 : 9780123983756

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A Historical Perspective on Evidence Based Immunology Excerpt :

A Historical Perspective on Evidence-Based Immunology focuses on the results of hypothesis-driven, controlled scientific experiments that have led to the current understanding of immunological principles. The text helps beginning students in biomedical disciplines understand the basis of immunologic knowledge, while also helping more advanced students gain further insights. The book serves as a crucial reference for researchers studying the evolution of ideas and scientific methods, including fundamental insights on immunologic tolerance, interactions of lymphocytes with antigen TCR and BCR, the generation of diversity and mechanism of tolerance of T cells and B cells, the first cytokines, the concept of autoimmunity, the identification of NK cells as a unique cell type, the structure of antibody molecules and identification of Fab and Fc regions, and dendritic cells. Provides a complete review of the hypothesis-driven, controlled scientific experiments that have led to our current understanding of immunological principles Explains the types of experiments that were performed and how the interpretation of the experiments altered the understanding of immunology Presents concepts such as the division of lymphocytes into functionally different populations in their historical context Includes fundamental insights on immunologic tolerance, interactions of lymphocytes with antigen TCR and BCR, and the generation of diversity and mechanism of tolerance of T and B cells

Changing Views of the Evolution of Immunity Book

Changing Views of the Evolution of Immunity


  • Author : Gary W. Litman
  • Publisher : Frontiers E-books
  • Release Date : 2014-01-22
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 9782889191710

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Changing Views of the Evolution of Immunity Excerpt :

The multitude of cells, signaling pathways, receptors, novel genetic recombination mechanisms and interactive pathways of receptor function and cell differentiation that constitute the vertebrate adaptive immune system are integrally linked with the multicomponent innate immune system. At first glance, the levels of complexity seen in both systems at the phylogenetic level of mammals present what seem to be insurmountable hurdles in terms of achieving a systematic understanding of the evolution of immunity. New research directions and approaches suggest that resolution of many long-standing questions in this area is now possible. Historically, immunologists considered lower vertebrates and invertebrates as “simpler” forms, i.e., they were expected to possess more basic (less layered) levels of immunological complexity and thus potentially would serve as important resources. By considering the systematic placement of representative species in the context of phylogeny, characterizing their immune receptors, co-receptors as well as accessory molecules and evaluating responses to immunologic stimuli, it was thought that a clearer picture of immune evolution would emerge. There is no doubt that this approach has achieved some notable successes but for the most part it has fallen short in terms of achieving a broad understanding of the immunologic needs of many relevant models and how adaptive change in immune function is effected. Even if a structurally relevant ortholog of an immune effector is identified in a model organism, there is no reason to assume that it functions in a corresponding manner in disparate phylogenetic taxa. For example, survival of a sessile marine invertebrate, whose anatomical form puts it in open and contiguous contact with a literal sea of microorganisms and viruses, would be thought to depend, at least in part, on a “capable” immune response; however, at present, we have no real understanding of how this is achieved in an integrated ma

Fundamental Immunology Book

Fundamental Immunology


  • Author : William E. Paul
  • Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • Release Date : 2012-12-10
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 1283
  • ISBN 10 : 9781451117837

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Fundamental Immunology Excerpt :

Fundamental Immunology Seventh Edition This standard-setting textbook has defined the field of immunology since 1984, and is now in its Seventh Edition continuing to deliver the detailed, authoritative, and timely coverage readers expect. This comprehensive, up-to-date text is ideal for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, basic and clinical immunologists, microbiologists and infectious disease physicians, and any physician treating diseases in which immunologic mechanisms play a role. Now full-color throughout the book's fully revised and updated content reflects the latest advances in the field. Current insights enhance readers' understanding of immune system function. The text's unique approach bridges the gap between basic immunology and the disease process. Extensive coverage of molecular biology explains the molecular dynamics underlying immune disorders and their treatment. Abundant illustrations and tables deliver essential information at a glance. Plus a convenient companion website features the fully searchable text with all references linked to PubMed. Look inside and discover... * Fully revised and updated content reflects the latest advances in the field. * Current insights enhance readers' understanding of immune system function * Unique approach bridges the gap between basic immunology and the disease process. * Extensive coverage of molecular biology explains the molecular dynamics underlying immune disorders and their treatment. * Abundant illustrations and tables deliver essential information at a glance. PLUS... A convenient companion website features the fully searchable text with all references linked to PubMed. Pick up your copy today!

Molecular Evolution on Rugged Landscapes Book

Molecular Evolution on Rugged Landscapes


  • Author : Alan S. Perelson
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2018-03-08
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN 10 : 9780429978500

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Molecular Evolution on Rugged Landscapes Excerpt :

Rugged fitness landscapes, and emerging area of biological science, underline both molecular and morphological evolution. Mathematical descriptions of such landscapes can be expected to lead to new experimental studies that actually test and establish their structure. In addition, current experimental techniques now allow one to carry out applied molecular evolution in the laboratory, opening up the possibility of evolving biomolecules for medical and industrial use. Molecular Evolution on Rugged Fitness Landscapes, based on a Santa Fe Institute workshop, is the first book to serve as a comprehensive introduction to these tools that permit researchers to study the structures of complex, rugged, multipeaked fitness landscapes.The first section of the book outlines a number of the general issues concerning the structure of rugged fitness landscapes. The second section examines both the history and status of experimental work on somatic mutation and the maturation of the immune response, and discusses the hypercycle model of the origin of life. This proceedings volume is an excellent reference for graduate students and professionals in immunology, population biology, physics and molecular biology.