Toxicological Evaluation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Products Book

Toxicological Evaluation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Products


  • Author : Manuel Peitsch
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2021-01-14
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128209356

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Toxicological Evaluation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Products Excerpt :

Toxicological Evaluation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Products (ENDP) discusses the scientific basis for the toxicological assessment and evaluation of ENDPs. The book covers aerosol chemistry, in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical studies. It provides the basis for the evaluation of short and long term-effects, along with relative risks. It also examines the potential role of ENDPs in tobacco harm reduction and how they may reduce the risk of disease in smokers who switch to them. This book is a comprehensive resource for toxicologists, health practitioners and public health professionals who want the scientific information necessary to assess the relative risk of ENDPs when compared with cigarette smoking and cessation. Delivers a comprehensive overview of current state of science Offers an integrated analysis of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products Provides guidance for methodologies

Comparative Risk Assessment of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems   e cigarettes   and Conventional Cigarettes Book

Comparative Risk Assessment of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems e cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes


  • Author : Jinsong Chen
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2016
  • Genre: Uncategoriezed
  • Pages : 246
  • ISBN 10 : OCLC:953389495

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Comparative Risk Assessment of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems e cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes Excerpt :

Introduction: The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) is controversial. Among the issues of concern is safety: some people think ECs are safer alternatives to conventional cigarettes (CCs), while others are concerned about the possible health effects of using ECs. Although many studies have identified hazards in EC emissions, there is only limited information about exposure levels and the likely health risks of using ECs. Methods: This study aimed to characterise the health risks of using ECs and compare them with the risks of using CCs by utilizing the U.S. EPA health risk assessment model. Hazards were identified and profiled (toxicological and exposure) using document review. The risk from exposure to hazards was thus identified and the overall health risks of using ECs and CCs were compared, and then benchmarked with international guideline levels for each hazard to evaluate whether the detected hazards might pose a significant health risk to users or not, given comparable exposures. Results: Exposures to toxicants of concern identified in EC emissions (acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, cadmium, nickel, NNK, and NNN) are almost all far lower than in CC emissions, indicating EC use under standard use conditions is likely to be far safer than smoking. As most hazards’ exposure levels in EC emissions are lower than the defined guideline levels, ECs are also likely to be of low risk to health. Conclusions & Recommendations: The health risks of using ECs are lower than CCs. In a few studies of some ECs, some toxicant levels exceeded levels regarded as safe by international standards. However, studies of ECs lack standardisation in the assessment methods for EC product performance, usage patterns and exposure. Future studies should adhere to a standard methodology to enable ready comparisons. Regulation of EC manufacture and sales is needed to prevent the sale of low quality ECs. Lastly, health professionals and the general pu

Public Health Consequences of E Cigarettes Book

Public Health Consequences of E Cigarettes


  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2018-05-18
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 774
  • ISBN 10 : 9780309468374

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Public Health Consequences of E Cigarettes Excerpt :

Millions of Americans use e-cigarettes. Despite their popularity, little is known about their health effects. Some suggest that e-cigarettes likely confer lower risk compared to combustible tobacco cigarettes, because they do not expose users to toxicants produced through combustion. Proponents of e-cigarette use also tout the potential benefits of e-cigarettes as devices that could help combustible tobacco cigarette smokers to quit and thereby reduce tobacco-related health risks. Others are concerned about the exposure to potentially toxic substances contained in e-cigarette emissions, especially in individuals who have never used tobacco products such as youth and young adults. Given their relatively recent introduction, there has been little time for a scientific body of evidence to develop on the health effects of e-cigarettes. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes reviews and critically assesses the state of the emerging evidence about e-cigarettes and health. This report makes recommendations for the improvement of this research and highlights gaps that are a priority for future research.

How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease Book

How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : U.S. Government Printing Office
  • Release Date : 2010
  • Genre: Health & Fitness
  • Pages : 728
  • ISBN 10 : UCSD:31822037817723

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How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease Excerpt :

This report considers the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may underlie the pathogenicity of tobacco smoke. Many Surgeon General's reports have considered research findings on mechanisms in assessing the biological plausibility of associations observed in epidemiologic studies. Mechanisms of disease are important because they may provide plausibility, which is one of the guideline criteria for assessing evidence on causation. This report specifically reviews the evidence on the potential mechanisms by which smoking causes diseases and considers whether a mechanism is likely to be operative in the production of human disease by tobacco smoke. This evidence is relevant to understanding how smoking causes disease, to identifying those who may be particularly susceptible, and to assessing the potential risks of tobacco products.

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology Book

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology


  • Author : Ramesh C. Gupta
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2022-03-31
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 1556
  • ISBN 10 : 9780323915601

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Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology Excerpt :

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Third Edition is a comprehensive and authoritative resource, providing the latest literature on this complex subject by focusing on three core components - parent, placenta and fetus - and the continuous changes that occur in each. Enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of reproductive toxicology, this revised and updated resource addresses the totality of the subject, discussing a broad range of topics including nanoparticles and radiation, gases and solvents, smoking, alcohol and drugs of abuse, and metals, among others. In addition, it is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish and wildlife With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages. Completely revised and updated to include the most recent developments in the field, this book is an essential resource for advanced students and researchers in toxicology, as well as biologists, pharmacologists and teratologists from academia, industry and regulatory agencies. Provides a complete, up-to-date, integrated source of information on the key risk stages during reproduction and development Offers diverse and unique in vitro and in vivo toxicity models for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing in a user-friendly format that assists in comparative analysis Includes new chapters on developments in systems toxicology and predictive modeling of male developmental toxicity, adverse outcome pathways in reproductive and developmental toxicology, ovarian and endometrial toxicity, developmental neurotoxicity of air pollution, and more

Toxicological Risk Assessment and Multi System Health Impacts from Exposure Book

Toxicological Risk Assessment and Multi System Health Impacts from Exposure


  • Author : Aristidis M. Tsatsakis
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2021-08-01
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 684
  • ISBN 10 : 9780323853583

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Toxicological Risk Assessment and Multi System Health Impacts from Exposure Excerpt :

Toxicological Risk Assessment and Multisystem Health Impacts From Exposure highlights the emerging problems of human and environmental health attributable to cumulative and multiple sources of long-term exposure to environmental toxicants. The book describes the cellular, biological, immunological, endocrinologic, genetic, and epigenetic effects of long-term exposure. It examines how the combined exposure to nanomaterials, metals, pharmaceuticals, multifrequency radiation, dietary mycotoxins, and pesticides accelerates ecotoxicity in humans, animals, plants, and the larger environment. The book goes on to also offer insights into mixture risk assessments, protocols for evaluating the risks, and how this information can serve the regulatory agencies in setting safer exposure limits. The book is a go-to resource for scientists and professionals in the field tackling the current and emerging trends in modern toxicology and risk assessment. • Bridges basic research with clinical, epidemiological, regulatory, and translational research, conveying both an introductory understanding and the latest developments in the field • Evaluates real-life human health risk assessment for long-term exposures to xenobiotic mixtures and the role they play in contributing to chronic disease • Discusses advances in predictive (in silico) toxicology tools and the benefits of using omics technologies in toxicology research

Cellular In Vitro Testing Book

Cellular In Vitro Testing


  • Author : John Haycock
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2014-08-27
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN 10 : 9789814364980

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Cellular In Vitro Testing Excerpt :

Growing cells in 2D under static conditions has long been the gold standard of cell culture, despite this method not being representative of the complex in vivo environment. The use of animal models also has clear ethical and scientific limitations, and increasingly the 3Rs (replacement, refinement, reduction) in relation to animal models are being integrated into the modern-day scientific practice. Focusing on new 3D in vitro methods now available to researchers, this book brings together examples of leading-edge work being conducted internationally for improving in vitro cell culture methods, in particular the use of systems for enabling cell culture under laminar flow and the use of 3D scaffolds for providing cells with a structure which replicates the function of the extracellular matrix and encouraging interactions more akin to an in vivo environment.

Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults Book

Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults


  • Author : United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General
  • Publisher : U.S. Government Printing Office
  • Release Date : 2012
  • Genre: Health & Fitness
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN 10 : UCBK:C095488540

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Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults Excerpt :

NOTE: NO FURTHER DISCOUNT FOR THIS PRINT PRODUCT -- OVERSTOCK SALE -- Significantly reduced list price This Surgeon General s Report details the causes and the consequences of tobacco use among youth and young adults by focusing on the social, environmental, advertising, and marketing influences that encourage youth and young adults to initiate and sustain tobacco use. This is the first time tobacco data on young adults as a discrete population have been explored in detail. The report also highlights successful strategies to prevent young people from using tobacco. This three volume set includes the following items: A booklet containing highlights from the 2012 Surgeon General s report on tobacco use among youth and teens ages 12 through 17 and young adults ages 18 through 26. This booklet provides an overview of tobacco use within this targeted age group. The second booklet is an Executive Summary with two messages. One message from for Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary of Health and Human Services and a second message from Howard Koh, Assistant Secretary of Health and contains a brief introduction to the set and summary and conclusions for each chapter contained in the final volume. The final volume contains over 800 pages of documentation, interwoven with text and data addressing the adverse health consequences of tobacco use by children and young adults. It includes research on a variety of topics, including nicotine addiction, trends in cigarette smoking among young adults, trends in smokeless tobacco use and cigar smoking over time, genetic factors in tobacco use among youth, and mass media influence on smoking to this age group to name a few. This third volume is rich with table data research findings to support the Surgeon General s concerns with America s use and tobacco. If you would like to find similiar products, please check out our Alcoholism, Smoking, and Substance Abuse resources collection at this link: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/catalog/health-benefits/

Barile   s Clinical Toxicology Book

Barile s Clinical Toxicology


  • Author : Frank A. Barile
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2019-04-24
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 584
  • ISBN 10 : 9781498765381

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Barile s Clinical Toxicology Excerpt :

As with the two previous editions, Barile’s Clinical Toxicology: Principles and Mechanisms, Third edition, examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events as a result of therapeutic drug administration or chemical exposure. With special emphasis placed on signs and symptoms of diseases and pathology caused by toxins and clinical drugs, the new edition, examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events as a result of therapeutic drug administration or chemical exposure. The new edition presents the latest, up-to-date protocols for managing various toxic ingestions, and the antidotes and treatments associated with their pathology. In addition, the effect of toxins on a limited number of body systems and drug-induced adverse drug reactions are also covered. KEY FEATURES • Discusses source of the drug or chemical, pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of action, detection, identification, and treatment • Examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events • Emphasizes the signs and symptoms of diseases and pathology caused by toxins and clinical drugs • Covers effect of toxins on body systems and drug-induced adverse reactions • Offers a unique perspective for toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy and health professions students The target audience for this book is undergraduate and graduate toxicology students, clinical pharmacy (Pharm.D.) students, emergency medical personnel, regulatory agencies, and other related health science professionals. It satisfies an essential need for a concise yet detailed authoritative, fundamental text addressing the current principles of clinical toxicology.

The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke Book

The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke


  • Author : Alan Rodgman
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2016-04-19
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 2332
  • ISBN 10 : 9781466515529

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The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke Excerpt :

Authored by two longtime researchers in tobacco science, The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke, Second Edition chronicles the progress made from late 2008 through 2011 by scientists in the field of tobacco science. The book examines the isolation and characterization of each component. It explores developments in pertinent analytical

Electronic Cigarettes and Vape Devices Book

Electronic Cigarettes and Vape Devices


  • Author : Susan Chu Walley
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2021-08-12
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 144
  • ISBN 10 : 9783030786724

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Electronic Cigarettes and Vape Devices Excerpt :

Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes), also known as vape devices or by trade names such as JUUL, are handheld devices that aerosolize liquid commonly containing nicotine, humectants and flavorings. Used by 1 in 5 high school students in 2020, they are the most common tobacco product used by youth. E-cigarette use has been associated with a variety of health issues such as nicotine addiction, e-cigarette or vaping associated lung illness (EVALI), seizures, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This first-of-its-kind book begins with an introduction and background on the historical context of tobacco products. The next chapters provide an overview of the e-cigarette landscape and reviews the e-cigarette devices and solutions and the evolution of these products. This is followed by reviews of the health effects of e-cigarettes on users and non-users and includes recommendations for prevention and treatment of youth e-cigarette use. The last few chapters address the public health impact of e-cigarettes with a review of the evidence of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. The book closes with policy and advocacy approaches and a resource page. E-cigarette and vape device use pose a public health crisis. This book contains succinct practical information and is a key reference for pediatricians as well as clinicians of all specialities. It also serves as a resource for health professionals, including tobacco dependence treatment providers and public health experts.

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Book

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals


  • Author : Gunnar F. Nordberg
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2021-12-10
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 796
  • ISBN 10 : 9780128232934

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Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Excerpt :

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fifth Edition, Volume I: General Considerations is the first volume of a two-volume work that gives an overview and reviews topics of general importance including reviews of various health effects of trace metals. The book emphasizes toxic effects in humans, along with discussions on the toxic effects of animals and biological systems in vitro when relevant. The book has been systematically updated with the latest studies and advances in technology and contains several new chapters. As a multidisciplinary resource that integrates both human and environmental toxicology, the book is a comprehensive and valuable reference for toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists, and environmental scientists in the fields of environmental, occupational and public health. Contains peer-reviewed chapters that deal with the effects of metallic elements and their compounds on biological systems Includes information on sources, transport and the transformation of metals in the environment Covers the ecological effects of metals to provide a basis for better understanding of the potential for adverse effects on human health Provides critical information on the properties, use, biological monitoring, dose-response relationships, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of metallic elements and compounds

Toxicology of the Gastrointestinal Tract  Second Edition Book

Toxicology of the Gastrointestinal Tract Second Edition


  • Author : Shayne Cox Gad
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2018-10-26
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN 10 : 9780429781438

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Toxicology of the Gastrointestinal Tract Second Edition Excerpt :

The gastrointestinal tract is the most important of the three major routes of entry (and clearance) of xenobiotics and biologic entities into the bodies of mammals. As such, it is also the major route for administration of pharmaceuticals to humans. Gastrointestinal Toxicology, Second Edition describes the mechanism for entry and clearance of xenobiotics, as well as the barriers, immunologic and metabolic issues, and functions present in the GI tract. Appearing in this volume are also considerations of the microbiome and its actions and influence on the function of the GI tract and on the toxicity and pharmacodynamics of ingested substances (including nutrients, toxins, and therapeutics). These fifteen chapters written by experienced experts in the field address methods to evaluate GI function; specifics of GI function and toxicity assessment in canines and minipigs; classes of compounds with their toxicity; species differences; and the toxicity (and promise) of nanoparticles. Those needing to understand the structure, function, and methods of studying the GI tract will find this volume a singular source of reference.

WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation  Report on the scientific basis of tobacco product regulation Book

WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation Report on the scientific basis of tobacco product regulation


  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher : World Health Organization
  • Release Date : 2021-05-04
  • Genre: Law
  • Pages : null
  • ISBN 10 : 9789240022720

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WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation Report on the scientific basis of tobacco product regulation Excerpt :

This eighth report of the Study Group addresses electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS), electronic non-nicotine delivery system (ENNDS) and heated tobacco product (HTPs); however, it does not cover all aspects of these products, because many of the papers were written to meet the request of COP8, which was to review understanding on novel and emerging tobacco products (FCTC/COP8). Continued research is necessary on these products; the Study Group will cover other products of interest (including traditional products, such as waterpipes, cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) in its next report, guided by countries’ regulatory requirements and pertinent issues in tobacco product regulation. This will ensure continued, timely technical support to all countries and address all products, recognizing that their availability depends on the jurisdiction.